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Designing the
Questionnaire
2
Quality aims in survey
research
•
•
•
•
Goal is to collect information that is:
Valid: measures the quantity or concept that is supposed to
be measured
Reliable: measures the quantity or concept in a consistent
or reproducible manner
Unbiased: measures the quantity or concept in a way that
does not systematically under- or overestimate the true
value
Discriminating: can distinguish adequately between
respondents for whom the underlying level of the quantity or
concept is different
3
Steps to design a
questionnaire:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Write out the primary and secondary aims of your
study.
Write out concepts/information to be collected
that relates to these aims.
Review the current literature to identify already
validated questionnaires that measure your
specific area of interest.
Compose a draft of your questionnaire.
Revise the draft.
Assemble the final questionnaire.
Questionnaire
•
•
The use of questionnaires is an indirect
method of research used to gather a
wide-range of information from a large
population.
Questionnaires are designed so that the
participant must read the questions that
they are being asked and must then
answer them based on the response
style.
Types of Questions
•
–
•
•
–
Contingency – A question that only applies to
people who responded in a certain way to
another question
If yes complete this section if no, move to next
section
Matrix - A series of questions that’s share
answer choices
Scaled - Responses are graded on a
continuum
How important do you think standardized test
scores are to a fifth grader’s
Type of Questions
•
–
•
–
–
Open Ended – Questions that the
respondent can write their own answer.
Unstructured – Randomly Generated
Questions
What do you like to do on your spare time?
Word Association – Participant chooses the
first word that comes to mind based on the
list of words presented.
Completion – Finish a story, sentence or
picture that has already been started.
Types of Questions
•
–
•
–
•
–
–
–
–
Closed Ended – Questions with a list of options to
choose from.
Dichotomous – Questions with two possible responses
(Yes or No) or (True or False)
Do you know your weight ?
Multiple Choice – Questions with several options to
choose from
Why don’t you use the school ‘s cafeteria services?
It’s too expensive
Severing times conflict with my class schedule
The location is inconvenient
The food quality is poor
Subjective vs. Objective
•
–
•
–
Objective data are questions that are not
influenced by personal preferences and
beliefs.
Are you an MIS major?
Subjective data are questions that are
heavily influenced on personal
preferences and beliefs.
Do you like BA 3810?
Qualitative vs.
Quantitative
•
•
•
Quantitative data is numerical based data
that is counted then analyzed
Qualitative data is more precise data that
contains words, pictures or objects.
In the majority of research, qualitative data
is preferred and has shown to provide more
accurate answers than quantitative data.
Questionnaire Tips
•
•
•
•
•
Clarity – Try to make the questions as clear as
possible and not heavily based upon
interpretation
Wording of Questions – It is important to
create questions that will give you the most
precise answer that you want
Avoid similar responses choices
Do not include questions that will provide data
that isn’t related to your goals & objective
Add Open-Ended questions so that interested
participants can further express their opinions
Administrating A
Questionnaire
•
•
•
•
Personal Handout
Email
Mail
Web survey
Scanning – Fills in their selected choice
based on multiple options.
Text Response – The participant creates
their own personal answer
Questionnaire Positives
•
•
•
It is a cost and time efficient way of
collecting a variety of data from large
populations
Less pressure on the respondent to
respond quickly or in a certain way
They are easy to analyze and record the
data
Questionnaire Negatives
•
•
•
•
Sampling Error – The margin of error
Response Bias – The respondents
answer’s are not their true beliefs
Non-response Bias – Those who
participate in a survey answer differently
that those who don’t.
Wording of Question – Sometimes the
question is misunderstood because of
wording.
Interview
•
•
•
An interview is a direct method of research
used to gather information for a specific
purpose.
In interviews, the interviewer has the capability
to learn more about how participants feel about
the questions based on their body movements.
The interviewer can also clarify any
misinterpretations of certain questions so that
the answers will be more accurate.
Interview Format
•
•
•
Structured – An organized interview with a
specific list of questions and no
interruptions from the interviewer.
Cognitive – Involves a series of methods
used to figure out the process the
participant goes through in a specific
situation.
Unstructured – A free-flowing interview
with little organization and fewer
questions.
Interview Type
•
•
•
Personal – Interviewer and Interviewee
are going through interview face-to-face
Telephone – Conducting an interview via
telephone
Web Interview – Interviewing with e-mail,
chat room or other form of
communication over the web.
Interview Tips
•
•
•
•
Clarity – Speak clearly and properly so that the
participant can understand you.
Have a set list of questions that you would like
to ask the participant and interact with them if
necessary.
Try to clock how long the interview will take so
you don’t go overboard and run out of time.
Try not to offend or throw off the participant
with your questions and body motions.
Interview Positives
•
•
•
•
Responses are typically more detailed
Interviewer can explain questions that
are unclear
Interviewer can observe the participants
body language
The Interviewer can add additional
questions if they feel that the
information will help their research.
Interview Negatives
•
•
•
It can be difficult to get all the samples that you
would like to because of high cost and amount
of time needed.
Courtesy Bias – the tendency for respondents to
give answer that they think the interview wants
to hear, rather than what they really feel
Faulty memory – some respondents may answer
a question incorrectly simply because of a poor
memory
Ch 11 20
What is a Questionnaire?
• A questionnaire is the vehicle used to
pose the questions that the
researcher wants respondents to
answer.
Ch 11 21
Questionnaire Design
• Questionnaire design is a systematic
process in which the researcher
contemplates various question
formats, considers a number of
factors characterizing the survey at
hand, ultimately words the various
questions very carefully, and
organizes the questionnaire’s layout.
Ch 11 22
The Functions of a
Questionnaire
•
•
•
•
Translates the research objectives
into specific questions
Standardizes those questions and
the response categories
Fosters cooperation and motivation
Serves as permanent records of the
research
Ch 11 23
The Functions of a
Questionnaire
•
•
Can speed up the process of data
analysis
Can serve as the basis for reliability
and validity measures
Ch 11 24
Steps in the Questionnaire
Development Process (Figure
11.1)
Ch 11 25
Developing Questions
• Question development is the practice
of selecting appropriate response
formats and wording questions so
that they are understandable,
unambiguous, and unbiased.
Ch 11 26
Developing Questions
•
–
–
–
–
Marketing research questions
measure
Attitudes
Beliefs
Behaviors
Demographics
Ch 11 27
How wording affects answers
Did you see…
A broken headlight?
The broken headlight?
Which generates
more agreement?
Ch 11 28
Words to Avoid in
Questionnaire Development
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
All
Always
Any
Anybody
Ever
Every
Never
Ch 11 29
Why Avoid These Words?
•
•
–
–
These words: all, any, anybody, best,
ever, every, never, etc. are all EXTREME
ABSOLUTES…
They place respondents in a situation
where they must either fully agree or
they must completely disagree with the
extreme position in the question.
Do you always observe traffic signs?
Would you say all cats have four legs?
Ch 11 30
Four “Do’s” of Questionnaire
Wording
• Question evaluation refers to
scrutinizing the wording of a
question to ensure the question is
not biased and is worded such that
respondents understand it and can
respond to it with relative ease.
Ch 11 31
Four “Do’s” of Questionnaire
Wording
1.
2.
3.
4.
The question should be focused on a
single issue or topic. “What type of
hotel do you stay in on a trip?”
Pleasure or business trip? En route or
final destination?
The question should be brief.
The question should be
grammatically simple, if possible.
The question should be crystal clear.
Ch 11 32
Four “Do Not’s” of
Questionnaire Wording
1.
2.
The question should not “lead” the
respondent to a particular answer.
“Don’t you see any problem with
using credit cards for online
purchases?”
The question should not have
“loaded” wording or phrasing. Use
universal beliefs…Since our Founding
Fathers gave us the right to bear
arms…
Ch 11 33
Four “Do Not’s” of
Questionnaire Wording
3.
4.
The question should not be “double-
barreled.”
The question should not use words
that overstate the condition…do not
use “dramatics.” “Would you buy
sunglasses that protect your eyes
from harmful ultraviolent rays that
cause blindness?”
Ch 11 34
What is wrong with each
question?
How do you feel about Sears?
When some gasoline or electric-powered
product in your house breaks, do you call the
Sears repair service?
If the Sears repair service schedule was not
convenient for you, would you consider or not
consider calling a competing repair
organization to fix the problem you have?
How much do you think you would have to pay
to have Sears fix something that needs to be
repaired?
Shouldn’t concerned parents use car seats?
Should car seats be used for our loved ones?
Do good parents and responsible citizens use
car seats?
Do you believe infant car seats can protect
riders from being maimed?
Ch 11 35
Individual Question Wording
•
–
–
–
–
“Do’s” for all questions
Keep it focused on a single topic
Keep it brief
Keep it grammatically simple
Keep it crystal clear
How do you feel about Sears?
When some gasoline or electric-powered product in your house
breaks, do you call the Sears repair service?
If the Sears repair service schedule was not convenient for you,
would you consider of not consider calling a competing repair
organization to fix the problem you have?
How much do you think you would have to pay to have Sears
fix something that needs to be repaired?
Please rate each aspect of
Sears…
When you need it, do you call Sears repair service?
If you did not use Sears repair service, would you use another
repair service?
How much do you think Sears charges for a repair service
call?
Ch 11 36
Do you believe infant car sears can protect riders from being maimed?
Individual Question Wording
•
–
–
–
–
“Do not’s” for all questions
Don’t ask leading questions
Don’t ask loaded questions
Don’t ask double-barreled questions
Don’t use overstated questionsDo you think children’s car seats are useful?
Should car seats be used for our loved ones?
Shouldn’t concerned parents use car seats?
Do good parents and responsible citizens use car seats?
Do you think infant car seats are useful?
Do you think car seats are useful for family members?
Do you think parents who use car seats are
responsible?
Ch 11 37
Questionnaire Organization
•
•
Questionnaire organization is the
sequence of statements and
questions that make up the
questionnaire.
It is important because the
questionnaire appearance and ease
of flow affect the quality of the
information gathered.
Ch 11 38
Questionnaire Organization
• The introduction is called a “cover
letter” if the introduction is written to
accompany a mail survey or online
survey.
Ch 11 39
Questionnaire Organization
•
–
–
–
–
–
Five functions:
Identifies the surveyor/sponsor
Indicates the purpose of the survey
Explains how the respondent was
selected
Requests for/provides incentive for
participation
Determines if respondent is
suitable
Ch 11 40
Questionnaire Organization
Ch 11 41
Incentives
• Incentives are offers to do something
for the respondent to increase the
probability that the respondent will
participate in the survey.
Ch 11 42
Incentives
•
–
–
–
Incentives may be monetary or non-
monetary.
Anonymity: respondent assured
name not identified
Confidentiality: respondent’s name
is known by the researcher but not
divulged to a third party
Both are used as non-monetary
incentives to increase participation
Ch 11 43
Screening Questions
•
•
Screening questions are used to
ferret out respondents who do not
meet research study qualifications.
Research objectives should specify
who should and should not be
included in the research study.
Ch 11 44
Screening Questions
•
•
•
Example: If you were conducting
research on factors consumers use in
selecting a new car, wouldn’t you only
want to talk to persons who have
recently selected a new car?
If you were doing a study to determine
the potential for an e-zine targeting
college students, wouldn’t you only
want to talk to college students?
Screening or qualifying questions are
asked to ensure you are talking to your
target population.
Ch 11 45
Question Flow
•
–
–
–
–
Question flow pertains to the
sequencing of questions or blocks of
questions.
Warm-up questions
Transitions
Skip questions
Classification and demographic
questions
Ch 11 46
Question Flow in a
Questionnaire
•
–
•
–
First Questions – Screens/Qualifiers
Have you shopped at Winn-Dixie in
the last month?
Immediately following screens -
Warm-ups
How many major grocery shopping
trips do you do in a month?
Ch 11 47
Question Flow in a
Questionnaire
•
–
–
•
–
Prior to major sections - Transitions
Did you purchase any cereal on
your last trip?
Do you use coupons for groceries?
Middle of questionnaire -
Complicated & Difficult-to-Answer
Rate each of the following aspects
of Winn-Dixie on how satisfactory it
is for you.
Ch 11 48
Question Flow in a
Questionnaire
•
–
Last Section - Classification
What is the highest level of
education you have earned?
Ch 11 49
Computer-Assisted
Questionnaire Design
•
•
–
–
–
–
Computer-assisted questionnaire
design: software programs allow
users to use computer technology to
develop and disseminate
questionnaires
Advantages:
Easier
Faster
Friendlier
More flexibility
Ch 11 50
Ch 11 51
Ch 11 52
Ch 11 53
Coding the Questionnaire
•
•
–
–
Coding: use of numbers associated
with question responses
Numbers are preferred for two
reasons:
Numbers are easier and faster to
keystroke into a computer file.
Computer tabulation programs are
more efficient when they process
numbers.
Ch 11 54
Performing the Pretest of the
Questionnaire
•
•
A pretest involves conducting a dry
run of the survey on a small,
representative set of respondents in
order to reveal questionnaire errors
before the survey is launched.
It is important to pretest on
respondents that are representative
of the target population to be studied.
1. Activity: Register for an account
•
•
•
Go to www.surveys.com and register for an
account.
You will have to provide them with some
background details.
Remember to check the relevant box to say you
don’t want loads of spam.
2
2. Types of online questionnaires
Web-based questionnaire
questionnaire designed as a web-page and hosted on
web-site
E-mail questionnaire
questions are submitted as part of the email itself
Questionnaire attached to an email
questionnaire is sent as an attachment to an email e.g. as
a word document
3. When to use an online questionnaire?
•
•
•
–
Internet offers great methodological potential
and versatility
Resulted in proliferation in online
questionnaires
But use of online questionnaire must be
appropriate and justified for each particular
research project
e.g. to address aims of research, selection of most
relevant questionnaire type and question format for
addressing aims, establishing a justified sampling strategy
to recruit relevant respondents and ensure appropriate
response rate
4. Advantages of online questionnaires
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Speed and volume of data collection
Savings in costs
Flexible design
Data accuracy
Access to research populations
Anonymity
Respondent acceptability
5. Disadvantages of online questionnaires
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sample bias
Measurement error
Non-response bias
Length, response and drop out rates
Technical problems
Ethical issues
6. Sampling issues
•
•
•
•
•
Recruitment
Sampling
Identity verification
Incentives
Response rates

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Questionnaire design sir

  • 2. 2 Quality aims in survey research • • • • Goal is to collect information that is: Valid: measures the quantity or concept that is supposed to be measured Reliable: measures the quantity or concept in a consistent or reproducible manner Unbiased: measures the quantity or concept in a way that does not systematically under- or overestimate the true value Discriminating: can distinguish adequately between respondents for whom the underlying level of the quantity or concept is different
  • 3. 3 Steps to design a questionnaire: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Write out the primary and secondary aims of your study. Write out concepts/information to be collected that relates to these aims. Review the current literature to identify already validated questionnaires that measure your specific area of interest. Compose a draft of your questionnaire. Revise the draft. Assemble the final questionnaire.
  • 4. Questionnaire • • The use of questionnaires is an indirect method of research used to gather a wide-range of information from a large population. Questionnaires are designed so that the participant must read the questions that they are being asked and must then answer them based on the response style.
  • 5. Types of Questions • – • • – Contingency – A question that only applies to people who responded in a certain way to another question If yes complete this section if no, move to next section Matrix - A series of questions that’s share answer choices Scaled - Responses are graded on a continuum How important do you think standardized test scores are to a fifth grader’s
  • 6. Type of Questions • – • – – Open Ended – Questions that the respondent can write their own answer. Unstructured – Randomly Generated Questions What do you like to do on your spare time? Word Association – Participant chooses the first word that comes to mind based on the list of words presented. Completion – Finish a story, sentence or picture that has already been started.
  • 7. Types of Questions • – • – • – – – – Closed Ended – Questions with a list of options to choose from. Dichotomous – Questions with two possible responses (Yes or No) or (True or False) Do you know your weight ? Multiple Choice – Questions with several options to choose from Why don’t you use the school ‘s cafeteria services? It’s too expensive Severing times conflict with my class schedule The location is inconvenient The food quality is poor
  • 8. Subjective vs. Objective • – • – Objective data are questions that are not influenced by personal preferences and beliefs. Are you an MIS major? Subjective data are questions that are heavily influenced on personal preferences and beliefs. Do you like BA 3810?
  • 9. Qualitative vs. Quantitative • • • Quantitative data is numerical based data that is counted then analyzed Qualitative data is more precise data that contains words, pictures or objects. In the majority of research, qualitative data is preferred and has shown to provide more accurate answers than quantitative data.
  • 10. Questionnaire Tips • • • • • Clarity – Try to make the questions as clear as possible and not heavily based upon interpretation Wording of Questions – It is important to create questions that will give you the most precise answer that you want Avoid similar responses choices Do not include questions that will provide data that isn’t related to your goals & objective Add Open-Ended questions so that interested participants can further express their opinions
  • 11. Administrating A Questionnaire • • • • Personal Handout Email Mail Web survey Scanning – Fills in their selected choice based on multiple options. Text Response – The participant creates their own personal answer
  • 12. Questionnaire Positives • • • It is a cost and time efficient way of collecting a variety of data from large populations Less pressure on the respondent to respond quickly or in a certain way They are easy to analyze and record the data
  • 13. Questionnaire Negatives • • • • Sampling Error – The margin of error Response Bias – The respondents answer’s are not their true beliefs Non-response Bias – Those who participate in a survey answer differently that those who don’t. Wording of Question – Sometimes the question is misunderstood because of wording.
  • 14. Interview • • • An interview is a direct method of research used to gather information for a specific purpose. In interviews, the interviewer has the capability to learn more about how participants feel about the questions based on their body movements. The interviewer can also clarify any misinterpretations of certain questions so that the answers will be more accurate.
  • 15. Interview Format • • • Structured – An organized interview with a specific list of questions and no interruptions from the interviewer. Cognitive – Involves a series of methods used to figure out the process the participant goes through in a specific situation. Unstructured – A free-flowing interview with little organization and fewer questions.
  • 16. Interview Type • • • Personal – Interviewer and Interviewee are going through interview face-to-face Telephone – Conducting an interview via telephone Web Interview – Interviewing with e-mail, chat room or other form of communication over the web.
  • 17. Interview Tips • • • • Clarity – Speak clearly and properly so that the participant can understand you. Have a set list of questions that you would like to ask the participant and interact with them if necessary. Try to clock how long the interview will take so you don’t go overboard and run out of time. Try not to offend or throw off the participant with your questions and body motions.
  • 18. Interview Positives • • • • Responses are typically more detailed Interviewer can explain questions that are unclear Interviewer can observe the participants body language The Interviewer can add additional questions if they feel that the information will help their research.
  • 19. Interview Negatives • • • It can be difficult to get all the samples that you would like to because of high cost and amount of time needed. Courtesy Bias – the tendency for respondents to give answer that they think the interview wants to hear, rather than what they really feel Faulty memory – some respondents may answer a question incorrectly simply because of a poor memory
  • 20. Ch 11 20 What is a Questionnaire? • A questionnaire is the vehicle used to pose the questions that the researcher wants respondents to answer.
  • 21. Ch 11 21 Questionnaire Design • Questionnaire design is a systematic process in which the researcher contemplates various question formats, considers a number of factors characterizing the survey at hand, ultimately words the various questions very carefully, and organizes the questionnaire’s layout.
  • 22. Ch 11 22 The Functions of a Questionnaire • • • • Translates the research objectives into specific questions Standardizes those questions and the response categories Fosters cooperation and motivation Serves as permanent records of the research
  • 23. Ch 11 23 The Functions of a Questionnaire • • Can speed up the process of data analysis Can serve as the basis for reliability and validity measures
  • 24. Ch 11 24 Steps in the Questionnaire Development Process (Figure 11.1)
  • 25. Ch 11 25 Developing Questions • Question development is the practice of selecting appropriate response formats and wording questions so that they are understandable, unambiguous, and unbiased.
  • 26. Ch 11 26 Developing Questions • – – – – Marketing research questions measure Attitudes Beliefs Behaviors Demographics
  • 27. Ch 11 27 How wording affects answers Did you see… A broken headlight? The broken headlight? Which generates more agreement?
  • 28. Ch 11 28 Words to Avoid in Questionnaire Development • • • • • • • All Always Any Anybody Ever Every Never
  • 29. Ch 11 29 Why Avoid These Words? • • – – These words: all, any, anybody, best, ever, every, never, etc. are all EXTREME ABSOLUTES… They place respondents in a situation where they must either fully agree or they must completely disagree with the extreme position in the question. Do you always observe traffic signs? Would you say all cats have four legs?
  • 30. Ch 11 30 Four “Do’s” of Questionnaire Wording • Question evaluation refers to scrutinizing the wording of a question to ensure the question is not biased and is worded such that respondents understand it and can respond to it with relative ease.
  • 31. Ch 11 31 Four “Do’s” of Questionnaire Wording 1. 2. 3. 4. The question should be focused on a single issue or topic. “What type of hotel do you stay in on a trip?” Pleasure or business trip? En route or final destination? The question should be brief. The question should be grammatically simple, if possible. The question should be crystal clear.
  • 32. Ch 11 32 Four “Do Not’s” of Questionnaire Wording 1. 2. The question should not “lead” the respondent to a particular answer. “Don’t you see any problem with using credit cards for online purchases?” The question should not have “loaded” wording or phrasing. Use universal beliefs…Since our Founding Fathers gave us the right to bear arms…
  • 33. Ch 11 33 Four “Do Not’s” of Questionnaire Wording 3. 4. The question should not be “double- barreled.” The question should not use words that overstate the condition…do not use “dramatics.” “Would you buy sunglasses that protect your eyes from harmful ultraviolent rays that cause blindness?”
  • 34. Ch 11 34 What is wrong with each question? How do you feel about Sears? When some gasoline or electric-powered product in your house breaks, do you call the Sears repair service? If the Sears repair service schedule was not convenient for you, would you consider or not consider calling a competing repair organization to fix the problem you have? How much do you think you would have to pay to have Sears fix something that needs to be repaired? Shouldn’t concerned parents use car seats? Should car seats be used for our loved ones? Do good parents and responsible citizens use car seats? Do you believe infant car seats can protect riders from being maimed?
  • 35. Ch 11 35 Individual Question Wording • – – – – “Do’s” for all questions Keep it focused on a single topic Keep it brief Keep it grammatically simple Keep it crystal clear How do you feel about Sears? When some gasoline or electric-powered product in your house breaks, do you call the Sears repair service? If the Sears repair service schedule was not convenient for you, would you consider of not consider calling a competing repair organization to fix the problem you have? How much do you think you would have to pay to have Sears fix something that needs to be repaired? Please rate each aspect of Sears… When you need it, do you call Sears repair service? If you did not use Sears repair service, would you use another repair service? How much do you think Sears charges for a repair service call?
  • 36. Ch 11 36 Do you believe infant car sears can protect riders from being maimed? Individual Question Wording • – – – – “Do not’s” for all questions Don’t ask leading questions Don’t ask loaded questions Don’t ask double-barreled questions Don’t use overstated questionsDo you think children’s car seats are useful? Should car seats be used for our loved ones? Shouldn’t concerned parents use car seats? Do good parents and responsible citizens use car seats? Do you think infant car seats are useful? Do you think car seats are useful for family members? Do you think parents who use car seats are responsible?
  • 37. Ch 11 37 Questionnaire Organization • • Questionnaire organization is the sequence of statements and questions that make up the questionnaire. It is important because the questionnaire appearance and ease of flow affect the quality of the information gathered.
  • 38. Ch 11 38 Questionnaire Organization • The introduction is called a “cover letter” if the introduction is written to accompany a mail survey or online survey.
  • 39. Ch 11 39 Questionnaire Organization • – – – – – Five functions: Identifies the surveyor/sponsor Indicates the purpose of the survey Explains how the respondent was selected Requests for/provides incentive for participation Determines if respondent is suitable
  • 40. Ch 11 40 Questionnaire Organization
  • 41. Ch 11 41 Incentives • Incentives are offers to do something for the respondent to increase the probability that the respondent will participate in the survey.
  • 42. Ch 11 42 Incentives • – – – Incentives may be monetary or non- monetary. Anonymity: respondent assured name not identified Confidentiality: respondent’s name is known by the researcher but not divulged to a third party Both are used as non-monetary incentives to increase participation
  • 43. Ch 11 43 Screening Questions • • Screening questions are used to ferret out respondents who do not meet research study qualifications. Research objectives should specify who should and should not be included in the research study.
  • 44. Ch 11 44 Screening Questions • • • Example: If you were conducting research on factors consumers use in selecting a new car, wouldn’t you only want to talk to persons who have recently selected a new car? If you were doing a study to determine the potential for an e-zine targeting college students, wouldn’t you only want to talk to college students? Screening or qualifying questions are asked to ensure you are talking to your target population.
  • 45. Ch 11 45 Question Flow • – – – – Question flow pertains to the sequencing of questions or blocks of questions. Warm-up questions Transitions Skip questions Classification and demographic questions
  • 46. Ch 11 46 Question Flow in a Questionnaire • – • – First Questions – Screens/Qualifiers Have you shopped at Winn-Dixie in the last month? Immediately following screens - Warm-ups How many major grocery shopping trips do you do in a month?
  • 47. Ch 11 47 Question Flow in a Questionnaire • – – • – Prior to major sections - Transitions Did you purchase any cereal on your last trip? Do you use coupons for groceries? Middle of questionnaire - Complicated & Difficult-to-Answer Rate each of the following aspects of Winn-Dixie on how satisfactory it is for you.
  • 48. Ch 11 48 Question Flow in a Questionnaire • – Last Section - Classification What is the highest level of education you have earned?
  • 49. Ch 11 49 Computer-Assisted Questionnaire Design • • – – – – Computer-assisted questionnaire design: software programs allow users to use computer technology to develop and disseminate questionnaires Advantages: Easier Faster Friendlier More flexibility
  • 53. Ch 11 53 Coding the Questionnaire • • – – Coding: use of numbers associated with question responses Numbers are preferred for two reasons: Numbers are easier and faster to keystroke into a computer file. Computer tabulation programs are more efficient when they process numbers.
  • 54. Ch 11 54 Performing the Pretest of the Questionnaire • • A pretest involves conducting a dry run of the survey on a small, representative set of respondents in order to reveal questionnaire errors before the survey is launched. It is important to pretest on respondents that are representative of the target population to be studied.
  • 55. 1. Activity: Register for an account • • • Go to www.surveys.com and register for an account. You will have to provide them with some background details. Remember to check the relevant box to say you don’t want loads of spam. 2
  • 56. 2. Types of online questionnaires Web-based questionnaire questionnaire designed as a web-page and hosted on web-site E-mail questionnaire questions are submitted as part of the email itself Questionnaire attached to an email questionnaire is sent as an attachment to an email e.g. as a word document
  • 57. 3. When to use an online questionnaire? • • • – Internet offers great methodological potential and versatility Resulted in proliferation in online questionnaires But use of online questionnaire must be appropriate and justified for each particular research project e.g. to address aims of research, selection of most relevant questionnaire type and question format for addressing aims, establishing a justified sampling strategy to recruit relevant respondents and ensure appropriate response rate
  • 58. 4. Advantages of online questionnaires • • • • • • • Speed and volume of data collection Savings in costs Flexible design Data accuracy Access to research populations Anonymity Respondent acceptability
  • 59. 5. Disadvantages of online questionnaires • • • • • • Sample bias Measurement error Non-response bias Length, response and drop out rates Technical problems Ethical issues