Electromagnetic waves carry energy through space and matter.
Electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, visible light, gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet light, infrared waves and microwaves.
Electromagnetic spectrum –electromagnetic radiation arranged by wavelength
Forms of electromagnetic radiation differ in their frequencies –the number of wave crests that pass a given point per unit time. <ul><li>The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency. </li></ul>
Optical telescopes –use light to produce magnified images.
Optical telescopes are often located in buildings called observatories, which often have roofs that can be opened for viewing.
The Hubble Space Telescope, is located outside Earth’s atmosphere. <ul><li>Mistake made in shaping largest mirror </li></ul><ul><li>Once the mistake was repaired in 1999, the Hubble Space Telescope sent back images of a large cluster of galaxies. </li></ul>
Radio telescope –studies radio waves that travel through space.
<ul><li>Because radio waves pass freely through Earth’s atmosphere, radio telescopes are usually useful 24 hours a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists use information from radio waves to detect objects in space, map the universe, and look for signs of life on other planets. </li></ul>
Early space missions allowed astronomers to study space in ways not possible using telescopes
Special motors that don’t require air are called rockets.
A satellite –any object that revolves around another object in an orbit, or curved path.
In 1957 the former Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik I.
Today thousands of communication, scientific, and weather satellites orbit Earth.
A space probe gathers and transmits information to Earth.
Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are exploring space beyond the solar system.
Pioneer 10, first probe to travel through an asteroid belt.
Galileo, launched in 1989, studied Jupiter and two of its moons, Europa and Io.
United States began race for the Moon in the 1960s.
First step in program to reach the Moon began with Project Mercury.
In 1961, Alan B. Shepard became the first U.S. citizen in space.
In 1962, John Glenn became the first U.S. citizen to orbit Earth.
Second step in the Moon race involved project Gemini. <ul><li>Teams of astronauts met and connect with orbiting spacecraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of space travel on humans studied. </li></ul>
Project Apollo –the final step in U.S. program to reach the Moon. <ul><li>On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 landed on the Moon’s surface, and Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin became the first two people to set foot on the Moon. </li></ul>
Space shuttle: reusable spacecraft for transporting people, satellites, and other materials to and from space. <ul><li>Launched standing on end. </li></ul><ul><li>Glides back to Earth like an airplane. </li></ul>
Space stations –permanent places in space for humans to live and work.
U.S. Skylab orbited Earth from 1973-1979. <ul><li>Crews performed experiments and collected data on the effects of living in space. </li></ul><ul><li>Fell out of orbit and burned up as it entered the atmosphere. </li></ul>
Former Soviet Union Mir housed one socmonaut for more than a year at a time.
The United States and Russia have cooperated in nine joint space missions.
International Space Station –cooperation and resources of 16 countries. <ul><li>ISS to be completed by 2006 </li></ul>
Several missions explore Mars <ul><li>Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder –scientists learned water may have covered planet in the past. </li></ul>
In 2002, Odyssey confirmed that Martian soil contained frozen water.