Atmosphere 15

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Atmosphere 15

  1. 1. Atmosphere <ul><li>thin layer of air that protects the Earth’s surface from extreme temperatures and harmful Sun rays. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Atmospheric makeup <ul><li>mixture of gases, solids, and liquids. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Early atmosphere was much different than today <ul><li>volcanoes produced nitrogen and carbon dioxide, but little oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 2 billion years ago simple organisms began producing oxygen. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Eventually oxygen formed an ozone layer that protected Earth from harmful rays. </li></ul><ul><li>Green plants and diverse life forms developed. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Atmospheric gases include nitrogen (78%), oxygen(21%), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and argon.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Atmosphere is changing with the introduction of pollutants: increasing human energy use is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants mix with oxygen and other chemicals to form smog. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solids include dust, salt, and pollen.
  8. 8. Liquids include water droplets and droplets from volcanoes.
  9. 9. Five main layers of the atmosphere!!!
  10. 10. Lower layers <ul><li>Lowest layer, where humans live, is the troposphere, which extends about 10 km up, and contains most of the vapor and gases. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Extending from 10 km to 50 km above Earth, the Stratosphere contains ozone. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Upper Layers <ul><li>Mesosphere extends from 50 km to 85 km and is the layer in which meteors are visible. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Thickest part of atmosphere is from 85 km to 500km and is called the thermosphere for its high temperatures. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Within the mesosphere and thermosphere is a layer of charged particles called the ionosphere that can help carry radio waves.
  15. 17. <ul><li>Exosphere – outer layer of atmosphere in which the space shuttle flies, has very few molecules. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Atmospheric Pressure <ul><li>PRESSURE IS GREATEST IN THE TROPOSPHERE. </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURE DECREASES WITH ALTITUDE DUE TO FEWER PARTICLES OF GASES. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Temperature in atmospheric layers <ul><li>The troposphere is warmed primarily by the Earth’s surface; temperature decreases as altitude increases in this layer. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature increases as altitude increases in the stratosphere, particularly the upper portion because ozone absorbs energy from the sun. </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Temperatures decrease with altitude in the mesosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermosphere and exosphere are the first to receive the Sun’s rays so they are very warm. </li></ul><ul><li>SEE GRAPH PAGE 431 </li></ul>
  19. 24. Ozone Layer <ul><li>about 19km to 48 km above Earth in the STRATOSPHERE . This layer of 3-atom oxygen molecules (O 3 ) protects the Earth from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Life on Earth, as we know it, depends on THE OZONE LAYER! </li></ul>
  21. 26. <ul><li>Pollutants called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are destroying the ozone layer. </li></ul><ul><li>CFCs are used in refrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol sprays, and foam packaging. </li></ul><ul><li>If these products develop a leak CFCs can enter the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>The ozone layer has a large hole over Antarctica. </li></ul>
  23. 28. Section II – Energy transfer in the Atmosphere <ul><li>Some energy from the Sun is reflected into space, some is absorbed by the atmosphere, and some is absorbed by land and water on Earth’s surface. </li></ul>
  24. 29. Heat <ul><li>Energy that flows from an object or location with a higher temperature to one with a lower temperature. </li></ul>
  25. 30. #1:Radiation <ul><li>Energy transfer in rays or waves. Solar energy travels to earth by radiation!! </li></ul>
  26. 31. #2:Conduction <ul><li>transfer of energy when molecules bump into each other through “contact”. </li></ul>
  27. 32. #3:Convection <ul><li>Transfer of heat by the “flow” of GASES (WIND) AND LIQUID ( OCEAN CURRENTS). </li></ul>
  28. 33. <ul><li>FACTORS WHICH CAUSE WIND: </li></ul><ul><li>“ DENSITY”- COLD AIR IS MORE DENSE THAN WARM AIR BECAUSE MOLECULES ARE CLOSER TOGETHER. </li></ul><ul><li>“ HIGH PRESSURE” AREAS ARE AREAS OF DENSER , COLDER AIR. </li></ul><ul><li>WIND BLOWS FROM HIGH PRESSURE REGIONS TO “LOW PRESSURE” REGIONS . </li></ul>
  29. 34. The Water Cycle <ul><li>water moves back and forth between Earth’s atmosphere and surface. </li></ul>
  30. 35. EVAPORATION: SOLAR ENERGY CAUSES LIQUID TO BECOME A VAPOR.
  31. 36. Water vapor in the atmosphere can cool and return to liquid form through condensation. (CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION)
  32. 37. <ul><li>When water vapor condenses, clouds of tiny water droplets may form. </li></ul><ul><li>Water droplets collide to form larger drops. </li></ul><ul><li>As water drops grow, they fall back to the Earth as precipitation. </li></ul>
  33. 39. Earth’s atmosphere is unique <ul><li>it holds just the right amount of the Sun’s energy to support life. </li></ul>
  34. 40. Section 3 – Air Movement
  35. 41. Wind is the movement of air molecules from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure
  36. 42. Different areas of Earth receive different amounts of the Sun’s radiation.
  37. 43. <ul><li>Wind patterns: warm (tropical) air rises and cold (polar air) sinks to form patterns of wind. </li></ul>
  38. 44. The Coriolis Effect <ul><li>rotation of the Earth causes moving air and water to move in patterns based on latitude. </li></ul>
  39. 45. Global Winds <ul><li>wind patterns, caused by convection currents combined with the Coriolis Effect, affect the world’s weather </li></ul><ul><li>Diagram and info. Page 441 </li></ul>
  40. 46. <ul><li>Near the equator, very little wind and daily rain patterns called the doldrums </li></ul>
  41. 47. Surface winds <ul><li>Between the equator and 30 ° latitude (north and south) are steady “trade winds”, blowing to the west. </li></ul>
  42. 48. <ul><li>Between 30 ° and 60° latitude (north and south) the prevailing westerlies blow to the east, in the opposite direction of the trade winds. </li></ul>
  43. 49. <ul><li>Polar easterlies blow from northeast to southwest near the north pole and from southeast to northwest near the south pole. </li></ul>
  44. 50. Upper troposphere <ul><li>narrow belts of strong winds called jet streams </li></ul>
  45. 51. <ul><li>Jet streams move faster in the winter. </li></ul><ul><li>Moves storm systems across the country. </li></ul>
  46. 52. Local wind systems affect local weather. <ul><li>Sea Breezes – a convection current blows wind from the cooler sea toward warmer land during the day. </li></ul>
  47. 53. <ul><li>Land Breezes – at night, air moves off the land toward the water as the land cools more rapidly than the water. </li></ul>

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