Chapter 24


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Chapter 24

  1. 1. The Solar System Section I The Solar System
  2. 2. Ideas about the night sky have changed over time <ul><li>Earth-centered model – early Greeks thought planets, Sun, Moon, and stars revolved around Earth </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sun-Centered model <ul><li>Nicholas Copernicus and Galileo Galilei observed that the moon revolved around Earth and that Earth and other planets revolved around the Sun </li></ul>
  4. 4. Modern View <ul><li>solar system includes Sun, eight planets, many small objects. </li></ul>
  5. 6. NEBULA THEORY (origin of solar system) <ul><li>a nebula of gas, ice, and dust slowly formed in space </li></ul>
  6. 7. A cloud of material in the nebula slowly rotated in space
  7. 9. The cloud became more dense, rotated faster, heated up, and flattened to form a disk.
  8. 10. As the cloud contracted, it grew warmer, triggering a nuclear fusion reaction that created the Sun
  9. 11. The leftover matter became the planets and asteroids <ul><li>First four inner planets – small and rocky with iron cores. </li></ul><ul><li>last four outer planets – large and lightweight … </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Planet orbits are elliptical and the Sun is not directly in the center of the orbits. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Section II <ul><li>The Inner Planets </li></ul>
  12. 14. Mercury <ul><li>Closest to the Sun, smallest planet </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Weak magnetic field suggests an iron core </li></ul><ul><li>Has many craters and high cliffs </li></ul><ul><li>no true atmosphere, so surface temperatures range from very hot to very cold </li></ul>
  14. 16. Venus <ul><li>second from the Sun and similar to Earth in size and mass </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>extremely dense atmosphere of clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide traps solar energy </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>causes an intense greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><li>Results in surface temperatures between 450 °C and 475°C </li></ul>
  17. 19. Earth <ul><li>average distance between Earth and the Sun is 150 million km </li></ul><ul><li>Water exists on surface as solid, liquid, and gas </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>More than 70% of surface covered with water </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere protects surface from most meteors and Sun’s radiation </li></ul>
  19. 21. Mars <ul><li>Called red planet because iron oxide in rocks makes them reddish-yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Polar ice caps made mostly of frozen carbon dioxide and frozen water </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Has largest volcano in the solar system </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Soil shows NO evidence of life……….. </li></ul><ul><li>perhaps…………… </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Has gullies and deposits of soil and rocks, which may indicate the presence of liquid groundwater </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Thin atmosphere of mostly carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Strong winds caused by differences in temperature between day and night </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>Is tilted on its axis, which causes seasons </li></ul>
  25. 29. Two small moons, Phobos and Deimos
  26. 31. Section III <ul><li>The Outer Planets </li></ul>
  27. 32. Jupiter <ul><li>fifth planet from the Sun, largest planet in the solar system </li></ul>
  28. 33. <ul><li>Below atmosphere, liquid hydrogen and helium are suspected </li></ul><ul><li>Solid rocky core may exist below liquid level </li></ul>
  29. 35. The Great Red Spot is the most spectacular of Jupiter’s many constant high-pressure gas storms
  30. 37. Has rings
  31. 38. Has at least 61 moons – four are large and have atmospheres
  32. 39. Io <ul><li>is very volcanically active; the closest large moon to Jupiter </li></ul>
  33. 41. Europa <ul><li>composed mostly of rock; may have an ocean of water under a thick layer of ice </li></ul>
  34. 43. Ganymede <ul><li>largest moon in solar system, even larger than planet Mercury </li></ul>
  35. 44. Callisto <ul><li>cratered rock and ice crust may surround a salty ocean and rock core </li></ul>
  36. 45. Saturn <ul><li>Sixth planet from the sun, second largest in the solar system, largest density </li></ul>
  37. 46. <ul><li>Thick outer atmosphere of hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane, and water vapor </li></ul>
  38. 49. <ul><li>Might have a small, rocky core </li></ul>
  39. 50. <ul><li>Each large ring composed of thousands of ringlets of ice and rock particles </li></ul>
  40. 51. Has at least 31 moons
  41. 52. Largest moon, Titan, is larger than the planet Mercury <ul><li>Thick clouds on Titan prevent scientists from seeing surface……. </li></ul>
  42. 54. Uranus <ul><li>Seventh planet from the Sun, large, and gaseous </li></ul>
  43. 55. <ul><li>Has thin, dark rings </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere of hydrogen, helium, and methane </li></ul><ul><li>Methane makes the planet bluish-green in color </li></ul>
  44. 56. Axis of rotation nearly parallel to plane of orbit
  45. 57. Neptune <ul><li>eighth planet from the sun, large and gaseous </li></ul>
  46. 58. <ul><li>bluish-green colored atmosphere similar to that of Uranus </li></ul><ul><li>Storms on Neptune reveal an active and rapidly changing atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>has at least 11 moons, of which pinkish Triton is largest </li></ul>
  47. 60. A. Comet: dust and rock particles combined with frozen water, methane, and ammonia.
  48. 61. 1. Halley’s comet: orbits Sun every 76 years.
  49. 62. 2. Oort Cloud: large group of comets surrounding solar system beyond Pluto.
  50. 63. 3. Amateur astronomers discovered Hale-Bopp in 1995.
  51. 64. 4. Comet structure: large dirty snowball of frozen rock and ice.
  52. 65. Comets <ul><li>a. Ice and dust vaporize as comet nears Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Vaporized material forms bright cloud called coma around comet nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Solar wind pushes on gas and dust in the coma, causing the particles to form a tail that always points away from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Eventually, most of the ice in the comet’s nucleus vaporizes, leaving only small particles. </li></ul>
  53. 66. Comets vaporize and break up after passing close to the Sun several times. When the nucleus breaks up, pieces spread out. The dust and rock fragments are called Meteoroids .
  54. 67. B. (1.) Meteoroid : name given to small pieces of comet when they move through space.
  55. 68. B. (2.) Meteor : small meteoroid that burns up in Earth’s atmosphere.
  56. 69. B. (3.) Meteor Showers : occur when Earth’s orbit passes through a group of meteoroids that enter the atmosphere.
  57. 70. B. (4.) Meteorite : meteoroid that strikes Earth.
  58. 71. C. Asteroid : rock similar to that which formed planets.
  59. 72. C. (1.) Most asteroids lie in an asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter.
  60. 74. Asteroid Info: <ul><li>Jupiter’s gravity may have kept these asteroids from forming a planet. </li></ul><ul><li>some planets’ moons may be asteroids pulled from the asteroid belt. </li></ul><ul><li>asteroid sizes range from very tiny to 940 km in diameter. </li></ul>
  61. 75. Near: The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous probe indicates asteroid 433 Eros has been in many collisions over time.
  62. 76. What is a shooting star? <ul><li>It is NOT a star!! </li></ul>