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Satellites, Space Transports, and Space Probes

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SATELLITES, SPACE
TRANSPORTS, TELESCOPES, AND
PROBES
Hubble the telescope that
changed the world
 The Hubble spaceTelescope was launched in 1990. Its launch
sped to humanity’s greatest advances.
 Hubble is a telescope that orbits Earth. Its position above the
atmosphere, which distorts and blocks the light that reaches
our planet.
 Hubble has shown scientists galaxies in all stages of
evolution, including toddler galaxies that were around when
the universe was still young, helping them understand how
galaxies form
 Hubble is a type of telescope known as a Cassegrain reflector.
Light hits the telescope's main mirror, or primary mirror. It
bounces off the primary mirror and encounters a secondary
mirror.The secondary mirror focuses the light through a hole
in the center of the primary mirror that leads to the
telescope's science instruments.
Hubble, How it works
 Telescopes actually work by collecting more light than the human
eye can capture on its own.The larger a telescope's mirror, the
more light it can collect, and the better its vision. Hubble's primary
mirror is 94.5 inches (2.4 m) in diameter.This mirror is small
compared with those of current ground-based telescopes, which
can be 400 inches (1,000 cm) and up, but Hubble's location beyond
the atmosphere gives it remarkable clarity.
 Here are the main instruments Hubble uses:TheWide Field
Camera 3 (WFC3) sees three different kinds of light: near-
ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared, though not simultaneously
,The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), Hubble's other new
instrument, is a spectrograph that sees exclusively in ultraviolet
light,The Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer
(NICMOS) is Hubble's heat sensor, , the Fine Guidance Sensors
(FGS) are devices that lock onto "guide stars" and keep Hubble
pointed in the right direction.
The Array Radio telescope
 TheVLA consists of 27 parabolic dishes that are each 25
meters (82 feet) in diameter.Transporter along rails laid out in
an enormousY pattern can move each dish independently.
Each arm of theVLA can extend to about 21 km.
 The radio signals that are recorded by component dishes
which are integrated in computers so that it will give out a
resolving pattern which is equal to a single dish as large as
36km in diameter.
 With a view to upgrading the venerable 1970s technology with
which theVLA was built, theVLA has evolved into the
ExpandedVery Large Array (EVLA).The upgrade has
enhanced the instrument's sensitivity, frequency range, and
resolution with the installation of new hardware at the San
Agustin site
Viking 1
 The NASA was also planning to sendViking 2 which
they eventually did a few days later they sentViking
1.
 They were pretty much the same since they both
had an orbiter and a lander, which traveled attached
together for nearly a year to reach Mars orbit.
 TheViking 1 orbiter flew within 90 kilometers of
Phobos to take images of this larger, inner moon of
Mars.
 TheViking lander took 360° pictures and collected
sample of the Martian soil which now helped us
know the effects of wind and water
Spirit Robot Vehicle
 The Mars Exploration Rover mission is part of NASA's
Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of
robotic exploration of the red planet.
 Primary among the mission's scientific goals is to
search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and
soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars.The
spacecraft are targeted to sites on opposite sides of
Mars that appear to have been affected by liquid water
in the past.
 After the airbag-protected landing craft settled onto
the surface and opened, the rovers rolled out to take
panoramic images.These images give scientists the
information they need to select promising geological
targets that tell part of the story of water in Mars' past.
Then, the rovers drive to those locations to perform
on-site scientific investigations.
Apollo 16
 Three primary objectives were first to
inspect, survey, and sample materials and surface
features at a selected landing site in the Descartes
region; second, emplace and activate surface
experiments; and third conduct in-flight
experiments and photographic tasks from lunar
orbit.
 Orbital science experiments were concentrated in
an array of instruments and cameras in the
scientific instrument module, or SIM, bay.The
crew used handheld Hasselblad 70mm still and
Mauer 16mm motion cameras.
Sputnik 1 and 2
 The world's first artificial satellite was about the
size of a beach ball (58 cm or 22.8 inches in
diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9
pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the
Earth on its elliptical path
 A few months later the URSS sent another
satellite, this one had a dog named laika, this
pretty much shake the world because they knew
that now the URSS was able to send nuclear
missiles across to the Atlantic.
Observation Satellites
 All of the different kind of observation satellites
vary o their type of orbit path, on their
payload, and from the point of view of imaging
instruments.
 It eventually has to be in such an orbit a satellite
is able to continuously view almost an entire
hemisphere.
 For applications requiring high resolution
imaging of a very specific area, such as the
monitoring of a glacier lake, or the mapping of
buildings destroyed by an earthquake, a high
resolution sensor would be required.

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Satellites, Space Transports, and Space Probes

  • 2. Hubble the telescope that changed the world  The Hubble spaceTelescope was launched in 1990. Its launch sped to humanity’s greatest advances.  Hubble is a telescope that orbits Earth. Its position above the atmosphere, which distorts and blocks the light that reaches our planet.  Hubble has shown scientists galaxies in all stages of evolution, including toddler galaxies that were around when the universe was still young, helping them understand how galaxies form  Hubble is a type of telescope known as a Cassegrain reflector. Light hits the telescope's main mirror, or primary mirror. It bounces off the primary mirror and encounters a secondary mirror.The secondary mirror focuses the light through a hole in the center of the primary mirror that leads to the telescope's science instruments.
  • 3. Hubble, How it works  Telescopes actually work by collecting more light than the human eye can capture on its own.The larger a telescope's mirror, the more light it can collect, and the better its vision. Hubble's primary mirror is 94.5 inches (2.4 m) in diameter.This mirror is small compared with those of current ground-based telescopes, which can be 400 inches (1,000 cm) and up, but Hubble's location beyond the atmosphere gives it remarkable clarity.  Here are the main instruments Hubble uses:TheWide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) sees three different kinds of light: near- ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared, though not simultaneously ,The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), Hubble's other new instrument, is a spectrograph that sees exclusively in ultraviolet light,The Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) is Hubble's heat sensor, , the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) are devices that lock onto "guide stars" and keep Hubble pointed in the right direction.
  • 4. The Array Radio telescope  TheVLA consists of 27 parabolic dishes that are each 25 meters (82 feet) in diameter.Transporter along rails laid out in an enormousY pattern can move each dish independently. Each arm of theVLA can extend to about 21 km.  The radio signals that are recorded by component dishes which are integrated in computers so that it will give out a resolving pattern which is equal to a single dish as large as 36km in diameter.  With a view to upgrading the venerable 1970s technology with which theVLA was built, theVLA has evolved into the ExpandedVery Large Array (EVLA).The upgrade has enhanced the instrument's sensitivity, frequency range, and resolution with the installation of new hardware at the San Agustin site
  • 5. Viking 1  The NASA was also planning to sendViking 2 which they eventually did a few days later they sentViking 1.  They were pretty much the same since they both had an orbiter and a lander, which traveled attached together for nearly a year to reach Mars orbit.  TheViking 1 orbiter flew within 90 kilometers of Phobos to take images of this larger, inner moon of Mars.  TheViking lander took 360° pictures and collected sample of the Martian soil which now helped us know the effects of wind and water
  • 6. Spirit Robot Vehicle  The Mars Exploration Rover mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet.  Primary among the mission's scientific goals is to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars.The spacecraft are targeted to sites on opposite sides of Mars that appear to have been affected by liquid water in the past.  After the airbag-protected landing craft settled onto the surface and opened, the rovers rolled out to take panoramic images.These images give scientists the information they need to select promising geological targets that tell part of the story of water in Mars' past. Then, the rovers drive to those locations to perform on-site scientific investigations.
  • 7. Apollo 16  Three primary objectives were first to inspect, survey, and sample materials and surface features at a selected landing site in the Descartes region; second, emplace and activate surface experiments; and third conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit.  Orbital science experiments were concentrated in an array of instruments and cameras in the scientific instrument module, or SIM, bay.The crew used handheld Hasselblad 70mm still and Mauer 16mm motion cameras.
  • 8. Sputnik 1 and 2  The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path  A few months later the URSS sent another satellite, this one had a dog named laika, this pretty much shake the world because they knew that now the URSS was able to send nuclear missiles across to the Atlantic.
  • 9. Observation Satellites  All of the different kind of observation satellites vary o their type of orbit path, on their payload, and from the point of view of imaging instruments.  It eventually has to be in such an orbit a satellite is able to continuously view almost an entire hemisphere.  For applications requiring high resolution imaging of a very specific area, such as the monitoring of a glacier lake, or the mapping of buildings destroyed by an earthquake, a high resolution sensor would be required.