Brain and Its Functions- Part 4


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In this presentation you will understand the role of brain functioning in the context of business.

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Brain and Its Functions- Part 4

  1. 1. Brain and Its Functions-Part 4 Dr. Prithika Chary Consultant Neurologist and Neurosurgeon Adopted by Prof.K.Prabhakar, [email_address]
  2. 2. Contents Part 4 <ul><li>This is the final presentation. We will examine </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner Theory of Multiple Intelligences, application of whatever we have learnt about brain to day to day activities as managers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basics for Business <ul><li>Basic intelligence & Common sense </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul>
  4. 4. MOTIVATION <ul><li>Latin “motivus” means “to move” </li></ul><ul><li>Goal oriented behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation=Hardiness </li></ul><ul><li>It is part of the cure to wish to be cured </li></ul><ul><li>Three ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Positive expectations/Positive emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Active role </li></ul>
  5. 5. Neurobiology of motivation -internal factors <ul><li>Good health and an optimal function of the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate activation of the limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>( moderate stress) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal cortical arousal (proactive role) </li></ul><ul><li>Stress by itself is not bad, moderate stress helps a person to grow and achieve </li></ul>
  6. 6. Neurobiology of Motivation - external factors <ul><li>Why should you want to do anything? </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal diet -food and mood </li></ul><ul><li>Effective stimulation of the “pleasure centre of the brain”- the serotonin connection </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal exercise - physical movement eg a brisk walk is an excellent follow on to a learning episode </li></ul><ul><li>It is part of the cure to wish to be cured </li></ul>
  7. 7. Facets of motivation <ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological variables </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual and thought processes </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental variables </li></ul><ul><li>Social experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Personality characteristics </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stress versus motivation <ul><li>Moderate stress is necessary for motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Too much stress de motivates </li></ul><ul><li>Burnout or exhaustion is the ultimate state of de motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is a choice of attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is the force that makes one act </li></ul><ul><li>It can be instinctive (drive) or learned </li></ul>
  9. 9. Instinctive motivation <ul><li>It is very strong </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on need </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are hunger, thirst, fear, tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>It compels a person to take suitable action to allay it </li></ul><ul><li>Instinctive motivation may also play a role in relation to others eg protectiveness of dear ones, the sex drive,etc </li></ul>
  10. 10. Learned motivation <ul><li>This can also be powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are the desire for possessions, recognition, achievement, or the opposite desire to relieve oneself of commitments and lead a relaxed life, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful motivation virtually compels a person to act </li></ul>
  11. 11. What motivates ? <ul><li>The positives outweigh the negatives </li></ul><ul><li>The black box with a reward inside analogy. If you drop a rupee in you have a 1 in 10 chance of getting the Rs. 1000/- which is inside today versus If you drop a rupee in you can get Rs. 1000/- after 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is modified by three factors, the value of the reward, how soon it will come, and the probability of getting it </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stages of motivation - from awareness to action <ul><li>Awareness - I could choose to change </li></ul><ul><li>Cognition - I know how to change </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion - I want to change </li></ul><ul><li>Decision - I will change </li></ul><ul><li>Action - I am changing </li></ul><ul><li>Completed action - I have changed </li></ul>
  13. 13. Steps of Behaviour change <ul><li>Awareness of the need to change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge to bring it about </li></ul><ul><li>Actually wanting to change </li></ul><ul><li>Sticking to the new Behaviour - commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Reaping the benefits of the new behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming the “new” person </li></ul>
  14. 14. Steps of behaviour modification <ul><li>Eliminate or suppress cue of unwanted behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen cue to wanted behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat wanted behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce frequency of unwanted behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange or emphasize negative consequences of unwanted behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange or emphasize positive consequences of wanted behaviour </li></ul>
  15. 15. From action to stability <ul><li>Making the new behaviour stick </li></ul><ul><li>This is related to the continuity, quantity, frequency and satisfaction obtained from the positive effects of the new behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Do not set unrealistic, huge goals </li></ul><ul><li>Realise the value and significance of small, positive steps forward in a continuous manner, rather than occasional big jumps. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What to do with Fear <ul><li>F is for fast - just start doing what you need to do </li></ul><ul><li>E is for effective - develop strategies to get you to your goal </li></ul><ul><li>A is for affordable, not just in monetary terms, but in terms of time, energy, etc - allocate and prioritise </li></ul><ul><li>R is for reliable - evolve methods which you can depend on to work for you </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Evolve a personal mission statement </li></ul><ul><li>Plan how you want to achieve your goals </li></ul><ul><li>Make your plan in three phases : immediate, short term and long term </li></ul><ul><li>Build in the rewards you are likely to attain at each phase </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t just sit and dream,learn how to go about it and start doing what you have to do to achieve it - DO IT, BE IT, LIVE IT </li></ul>How to motivate yourself?
  18. 18. What can help to motivate you ? <ul><li>Assess your skills </li></ul><ul><li>Know your stuff - learn the necessary skills </li></ul><ul><li>Build bridges between the old and the new you </li></ul><ul><li>Network - get feedback - learn from others </li></ul><ul><li>Know the price - is all this worthwhile? </li></ul><ul><li>Change begins at home </li></ul><ul><li>Find a role model and a mentor </li></ul><ul><li>JUST DO IT </li></ul>
  19. 19. ATTITUDE <ul><li>Gratitude </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Learned optimism </li></ul><ul><li>Pygmalion effect - self fulfilling prophecy - what we expect tends to come true </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on your strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Manage your weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Be yourself and love and forgive yourself </li></ul>
  21. 21. PROBLEM SOLVING <ul><li>Componential function deals with the efficiency of the mental effort </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential functions deals with the originality of the effort </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual function deals with the rigidity of the effort </li></ul><ul><li>Change me/Change thee/Change the situation </li></ul>
  22. 22. MEMORY <ul><li>Initially, newly learned data is &quot;stored&quot; in short-term memory, which is a temporary ability to recall a few pieces of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Some evidence supports the concept that short-term memory depends upon electrical and chemical events in the brain as opposed to structural changes such as the formation of new synapses. </li></ul>
  23. 23. LEARNING & MEMORY <ul><li>Is short term memory chemistry & electrical impulses ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is short term memory dependant on synaptic health and interconnectivity as well ? </li></ul><ul><li>Or is only long term memory dependant on the chemical and biological processes ? </li></ul><ul><li>How does one retain newly learned material ? </li></ul>
  24. 24. REVERBERATING CIRCUITS <ul><li>One theory of short-term memory states that memories may be caused by “reverberating” neuronal circuits -- that is, an incoming nerve impulse stimulates the first neuron which stimulates the second, and so on, with branches from the second neuron synapsing with the first. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Long term memory <ul><li>After a period of time, information may be moved into a more permanent type of memory, long-term memory, which is the result of anatomical or biochemical changes that occur in the brain (Tortora and Grabowski, 1996). </li></ul>
  26. 26. A model of working memory three distinct subsystems <ul><li>'phonological loop' , a system that draws upon speech resources </li></ul><ul><li>The visuospatial sketchpad , a parallel system akin to an artist's sketchbook for stimuli that cannot be verbalized, such as spatial information </li></ul><ul><li>The third main unit is the central executive , a system responsible for supervisory attentional control and cognitive processing. </li></ul>
  27. 27. 'central executive', a control system that mediates attention and regulation of processes occurring in working memory. <ul><li>An area in the prefrontal cortex, called DLPFC (Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex), lights up during difficult tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>This area shows activity during object working memory, and what are termed 'executive processes', such as planning, focusing attention on an object, switching between tasks, and 'inhibition' of short term storage (which are often tested using probes designed to distract subjects). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Working memory <ul><li>Auditory working memory is that short term memory skill that enables us to hold a few sentences in mind at one time to better understand a story we are hearing or to help us formulate our own ideas more clearly. </li></ul><ul><li>Because writing requires converting an idea into words and sentences in our mind and then transcribing those words on paper with accurate spelling, grammar, capitalization and punctuation, it puts a large burden on our working memory. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Working memory limitations <ul><li>For children with working memory limitations, writing is always a chore. </li></ul><ul><li>Children will labor over all writing assignments because they cannot &quot;hold the thoughts&quot; long enough to convert them to correctly spelled, grammatically correct, complete sentences that clearly express their ideas </li></ul>
  30. 30. MEMORY – Planned Repetition <ul><li>First, assume that your brain has &quot;Four Layers:&quot; LAYER ONE is for &quot;short-term&quot; memory. If there is no repetition , short-term memory is unreliable. Short-term memory is useful for many routine daily activities such as making phone calls or following directions immediately after they are given. It is used for activities that you don't need to remember very long. </li></ul>
  31. 31. MEMORY – Planned Repetition <ul><li>LAYER TWO is for slightly longer retention. If there is some repetition , then there is longer retention. </li></ul><ul><li>The repetition of the information forces it from Layer One to Layer Two of your memory. </li></ul><ul><li>This level of information is not very reliable </li></ul>
  32. 32. MEMORY – Planned Repetition <ul><li>LAYER THREE represents fairly good retention. </li></ul><ul><li>If you repeat the information several times and write it down, the act of writing itself creates a &quot;visual&quot; image for your mind to remember. </li></ul><ul><li>You will have forced that information into Layer Three memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Your muscles help you &quot;remember&quot; as you write, and your mind &quot;sees&quot; the information on paper again and takes another &quot;picture&quot; of it to &quot;re-store&quot; it in your mind or memory. </li></ul><ul><li>This provides much longer retention of information than the first two layers of your memory. </li></ul>
  33. 33. MEMORY – Planned Repetition <ul><li>LAYER FOUR memory is used when you &quot;force&quot; the information you want to remember into your mind by repeatedly thinking about the material during a period of three to six days. </li></ul><ul><li>Your conscious choice to repeatedly visualize and write down the information several times over a period of several days provides excellent retention. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Eight Intelligences Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences <ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic. </li></ul>                 
  35. 36. Verbal/Linguistic <ul><li>Verbal/linguistic intelligence involves all forms of working with language, including the ability to read the newspaper, a novel, or labels on various products we buy; the ability to write essays, poetry, reports, and letters; formal speaking before an audience, and informal conversation with a friend; and it involves listening to the words of another person and being able to understand what they are both saying and intending to communicate. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence <ul><li>Like to write, read and listen </li></ul><ul><li>Spin tall tales or tell jokes and stories </li></ul><ul><li>Have a good memory for names, places, dates, or trivia </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy reading books and writing stories </li></ul><ul><li>Spell words accurately and easily </li></ul><ul><li>Have well developed vocabulary and use language fluently </li></ul><ul><li>Like doing crossword puzzles or playing word games </li></ul>
  37. 38. Logical/mathematical intelligence <ul><li>Logical/mathematical intelligence is the pattern-seeking intelligence. We start doing math (that is, hunting for patterns!) very early in our human development. The first stage of the development of logical/mathematical intelligence is our manipulation of and play with a variety of concrete objects in the real physical world around us. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Mathematical/Logical Intelligence <ul><li>Explore patterns, categories and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Compute arithmetic problems quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy mathematics and using computers </li></ul><ul><li>Able to group and order data and then analyze, interpret and make predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Reason things out logically to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Play chess, checkers, or strategy games and win </li></ul><ul><li>Devise experiments to test out things not easily understood </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy logic puzzles </li></ul>
  39. 40. Intrapersonal Intelligence <ul><li>As far as we know, human beings are the only creatures who process self-consciousness. This is the ability to step back from ourselves and reflect on the self and to learn from our reflection </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;stuff&quot; of intrapersonal intelligence is the &quot;stuff&quot; of self-awareness, self reflection, and being in touch with the inner world of our individual being. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Intrapersonal Intelligence <ul><li>Have a deep awareness of inner feelings. strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Display a sense of independence or strong self-will and is self-directed </li></ul><ul><li>React with strong opinions when controversial topics are being discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer own private inner world </li></ul><ul><li>Like to be alone to pursue some personal interest, hobby, or project </li></ul><ul><li>Have a deep sense of self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>March to the beat of a different drummer in style of dress, behavior, or general attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Self-motivated to do well on independent study projects </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive ability </li></ul>
  41. 42. Visual/Spatial Intelligence <ul><li>In some ways it could be said that visual/spatial intelligence is the first language of the human brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain naturally thinks in images and pictures before it even has words to attach to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual/spatial intelligence deals with everything we see: all conceivable shapes, specific patterns and designs (both regular and irregular), concrete and abstract images, and the entire spectrum of color and texture. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Visual/Spatial Intelligence <ul><li>On the spatial side this intelligence deals with the relationships and placement of objects in the space/time continuum. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, where one object is in relation to another is at the heart of this spatial aspect of the visual/spatial way of knowing. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes directionality; namely, knowing where you are in relation to objects that inhabit the space and environment in which you are living, and being able to successfully move from one place to another. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Visual/Spatial Intelligence <ul><li>Think in images and pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Like to draw, paint, sculpt and. participate in art activities Report clear visual images </li></ul><ul><li>when thinking about something </li></ul><ul><li>Easily read maps, charts. and diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Draw accurate representations of people or things </li></ul><ul><li>Like to see movies, slides, or photographs </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy doing jigsaw puzzles or mazes </li></ul>
  44. 45. Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence <ul><li>From a neurological perspective, musical/rhythmic intelligence is the first of our intelligences to develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Think for a moment about the world of sound, rhythm, and vibration in which we are immersed while still in the womb. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are suggesting that this intelligence should really be called the &quot;auditory/vibrational intelligence,&quot; for it is more than music and rhythm alone. </li></ul><ul><li>It is dealing with the whole realm of sound and vibration </li></ul>
  45. 46. Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence <ul><li>It is dealing with the whole realm of sound and vibration; sounds and vibrations from the natural and/or humanly-created environment </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the &quot;consciousness altering&quot; effects of music, rhythm, sound, and vibration are probably more powerful than any of the other intelligences. </li></ul><ul><li>Just think of the power of music, rhythm, sound, and vibration to shift our moods, inspire religious devotion, evoke national pride, express deep love for another, or deep loss and grief. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence <ul><li>Sensitive to a variety of sounds in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Play a musical instrument or enjoy music </li></ul><ul><li>Remember melodies of songs </li></ul><ul><li>Tell when a musical note is off-key </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer to have music on when studying or working </li></ul><ul><li>Collect recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy singing </li></ul><ul><li>Keep time to music </li></ul>
  47. 48. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence <ul><li>Of all of the intelligences, body/kinesthetic intelligence is probably the most taken-for-granted part of our lives. We perform a wide variety complex bodily/kinesthetic tasks in our lives every day, usually without giving them a second thought. This intelligence deals with the full range of movement that is possible in and through the the body, including not only all those amazing feats which humanity has achieved with the body, but many heretofore unrealized innate kinetic potentials </li></ul>
  48. 49. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence <ul><li>The infant's potential to walk, the ability to develop and train both gross and fine motor skills at almost any stage of our development, and the subtleties of what we can express through facial expressions, posture, and other so-called &quot;body language.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Here we must also mention the latent potentialities of what contemporary researchers call the &quot;kinesthetic body&quot; or the &quot;imaginal body.&quot; This is the body of muscular imagination through which we possess the ability, via active mental performance, to improve, strengthen, and refine the movements and functioning of the real physical body. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence <ul><li>Learns best by moving around, touching, or acting things out </li></ul><ul><li>Process knowledge through bodily sensations </li></ul><ul><li>Move, twitch, tap, or fidget while sitting </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in physical activities or sports </li></ul><ul><li>Perform fine and gross motor skills effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Like to touch or be touched when talking with people </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled at handicrafts - woodworking, sewing, sculpting, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy using manipulative and other hands-on learning </li></ul>
  50. 51. Interpersonal Intelligence <ul><li>The &quot;stuff&quot; of interpersonal intelligence is the &quot;stuff&quot; of human relationships, collaboration with others, and learning from and about other people. </li></ul><ul><li>In some ways this may seem to be the most obvious of the intelligences, since we spend a large amount of every day working with, communicating with, and relating to other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, how skillful are we really? </li></ul><ul><li>How much to we really value and understand everything that is involved in depth cooperation and collaboration with others? </li></ul>
  51. 52. Interpersonal Intelligence <ul><li>Beginning in early childhood, throughout our formal schooling, and into our adult work life, the normal socialization process most societies provide us with hundreds of both formal and informal training opportunities in how to be competitive and how to be a &quot;rugged individual.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely do we receive similar &quot;training&quot; in the skills and capacities of being interpersonal! </li></ul><ul><li>The capacities of this intelligence are very complex and subtle, and often very much taken-for-granted. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Interpersonal Intelligence <ul><li>Enjoy being around people </li></ul><ul><li>Have many friends </li></ul><ul><li>Socialize a lot at school, work, or home </li></ul><ul><li>Organize, communicate and sometimes manipulate </li></ul><ul><li>Learn best by relating and cooperating </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as &quot;mediator&quot; when disputes arise </li></ul><ul><li>Have empathy for the feelings of others </li></ul><ul><li>Can &quot;read&quot; social situations accurately </li></ul>
  53. 54. Naturalist Intelligence <ul><li>It involves such capacities as species discernment and discrimination, the ability to recognize and classify various flora and fauna, and our knowledge of and communion with the natural world. </li></ul><ul><li>You can see the naturalist intelligence at work when you find yourself drawn to and fascinated by animals and their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>You can see it when you notice the effect on your mood and sense of well-being when someone brings plants and/or cut flowers into an otherwise sterile, humanly-created environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Think how often we head for &quot;great nature&quot; when we want to relax, 'unwind&quot;, or find inner renewal! </li></ul>
  54. 55. Existentialist <ul><li>Asks &quot;Why are we here?&quot; and &quot;What is our role in the world?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Likes philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys &quot;abstract&quot; ideas and concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Can easily go from A to Q when processing concepts. </li></ul>
  55. 56. The twelve brain/mind learning principles, as defined by Caine and Caine: <ul><li>The brain is a complex adaptive system. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain is a social brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The search for meaning is innate. </li></ul><ul><li>The search for meaning occurs through patterning. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions are critical to patterning. </li></ul><ul><li>Every brain simultaneously perceives and creates parts and wholes. </li></ul>
  56. 57. The twelve brain/mind learning principles, as defined by Caine and Caine (1997) <ul><li>Learning involves both focused attention and peripheral attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes. </li></ul><ul><li>We have at least two ways of organizing memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is developmental. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat. </li></ul><ul><li>Every brain is uniquely organized. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Brain Atrophy: Both of these brains are viewed from the dorsal aspect. The one on the left is a normal brain; note the fullness of the gyri. The brain on the right is a severally atrophic brain from a patient with Alzheimer disease. Note how thin the gyri are and how wide the fissures.
  58. 59. Brain toxins <ul><li>Many chemicals are toxic to brain function. Alcohol, drugs of abuse, nicotine, much caffeine, and many medications decrease blood flow to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>In chronic marijuana users, 85% had less activity in their temporal lobes than the control group. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Sleep & the Brain <ul><li>Sleep deprivation also decreases brain activity and limits access to learning, memory, and concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>A recent brain imaging study showed that people who consistently slept less than 7 hours had overall less brain activity </li></ul>
  60. 61. Stress & the Brain <ul><li>Stress negatively affects brain function. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress hormones have been shown in animals to be directly toxic to memory centers (hippocampus) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurones can die with prolonged stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing stress effectively is essential to good brain function. </li></ul>
  61. 62. STRESS “ People are always blaming their circumstances for what they are. I don’t believe in circumstances. The people who get on in this world are the people who get up and look for the circumstances they want, and if they can’t find them, make them.” George Bernard Shaw
  62. 63. Why are we stressed ? <ul><li>Today’s world has more people, more barriers, more traffic and more everything than ever before </li></ul><ul><li>Disintegration of the nuclear family </li></ul><ul><li>Disappearance of the extended family </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent job changes necessitating relocation of the home </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent job changes - new job, new place, new colleagues </li></ul>
  63. 64. Why are we stressed ? <ul><li>Frequent changes in everything around us </li></ul><ul><li>Information overload - junk mail, email, internet surfing </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of privacy - incessant ringing of the phone, doorbell, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Even mealtimes have been converted into power lunches & fellowship dinners </li></ul><ul><li>Being cooped up in a building away from nature </li></ul>
  64. 65. How does modern man/woman cope with stress ? <ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Eating </li></ul><ul><li>Codependant relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Most people get addicted to one or more of these </li></ul>
  65. 66. What are the consequences of stress ? <ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach ulcers </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease and heart attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholism & drug addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide and depression </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous breakdown or burnout </li></ul>
  66. 67. Who suffers stress most ? <ul><li>Not usually the high powered executive </li></ul><ul><li>More often those in jobs with little prestige and low pay </li></ul><ul><li>Those with heavy contact with the public, with little training requirements and minimal responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes it is not the job but the strain of commuting to work which is stressful </li></ul>
  67. 68. Main stressors <ul><li>Having too much to do in too little time </li></ul><ul><li>Change - marriage, divorce, giving birth, losing a loved one, getting fired or promoted, leaving home, changing house </li></ul><ul><li>Threat to survival </li></ul>
  68. 69. 12 Top stressors <ul><li>Death of spouse </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce </li></ul><ul><li>Marital separation </li></ul><ul><li>Death of close family member </li></ul><ul><li>Personal injury or illness </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Getting fired </li></ul>
  69. 70. 12 Top stressors <ul><li>Marital reconciliation </li></ul><ul><li>Family illness </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual problems </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage of a sibling </li></ul><ul><li>Stress at work is less traumatic than personal & family related stress. </li></ul>
  70. 71. WHY CARE ABOUT YOUR HEALTH AS YOU AGE ? <ul><li>Your chances of being diagnosed with high blood pressure, arthritis or diabetes will triple between the ages of 50 and 59. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet even the best medicines available today treat only the symptoms, not the root causes of these diseases. </li></ul>
  71. 72. MYTHS & FACTS <ul><li>Successful Aging, authors John W. Rowe, M.D., and Robert L. Kahn, Ph.D., share the results of a 10-year study by the MacArthur Foundation to find out how people can preserve and enhance their mental and physical health in later life. </li></ul><ul><li>The research shows that the influence of genetics shrinks proportionately as we get older, while social and physical habits become more important to physical and mental health. </li></ul>
  72. 73. MYTHS & FACTS <ul><ul><li>MYTH: To be old is to be sick. FACT: Older people are generally healthy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MYTH: You can't teach an old dog new tricks. FACT: Research shows that older people can, and do, learn new things - and they learn them well. </li></ul>
  73. 74. MYTHS & FACTS <ul><li>MYTH: The horse is out of the barn. FACT: It's never too late to benefit from healthy living. </li></ul><ul><li>MYTH: The secret to successful aging is to choose your parents wisely. FACT: Heredity is not as powerful a player as many assume. </li></ul>
  74. 75. MYTHS & FACTS <ul><li>MYTH: The lights may be on, but the voltage is low. FACT: Chronological age itself is not the critical factor in sexual activity or physical intimacy. </li></ul>
  75. 76. MYTHS & FACTS <ul><li>MYTH: The elderly don't pull their own weight. FACT: One third of older people work for pay, one third work as volunteers and many others provide much-needed assistance to family members, friends and neighbors. </li></ul>
  76. 77. MYTHS & FACTS <ul><li>MYTH: The elderly don't pull their own weight. FACT: One third of older people work for pay, one third work as volunteers and many others provide much-needed assistance to family members, friends and neighbors. </li></ul>
  77. 78. NATURE VS NURTURE <ul><li>A continuing question in medicine is whether we get sick because of our genes or because of something we are exposed to in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical research has shown that more often than not, the answer is both. </li></ul>
  78. 79. The Environment <ul><ul><li>The environment is everything that is not genetic. Some aspects of the environment that influence health and disease include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet — food, preservatives, coloring, method of preparation (smoked foods, for example), composition of diet (fats, carbohydrates, protein), and amount. </li></ul></ul>
  79. 80. The Environment <ul><ul><li>Air — clean air, smog, pollution, tobacco, chemical fumes in the workplace, dust (coal, cotton, etc.), humidity, and temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water — everything we drink, cook, or bathe in. Also, fluoride, pesticides, minerals. </li></ul></ul>
  80. 81. The Environment <ul><ul><li>Radiation — sunlight, tanning lights, and radiation (X rays, microwaves, radio waves). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infection — bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Also includes infection-related factors, such as sanitation and proximity to people, animals, or insects </li></ul></ul>
  81. 82. BIOMARKERS <ul><li>Lean body mass - young adult to middle age 3Kg per decade loss - accelerates after age 45 </li></ul><ul><li>Strength -20% decrease in motor units from age 30 to age 70 </li></ul><ul><li>Basal metabolic rate -drops by 2% per decade after age 20 yrs </li></ul>
  82. 83. BIOMARKERS <ul><li>Body fat percentage -adipose tissue increases in women from age 25 (25%) to age 65(43%) & in men from age 25 (18%) to age 65 (38%) </li></ul><ul><li>Body mass index - if 20% more it is obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Body fat distribution - pear is better than apple-waist hip ratio </li></ul>
  83. 84. BIOMARKERS <ul><li>Aerobic capacity - Peak heart rate - 220 minus age - declines by 30-40% by age 65 </li></ul><ul><li>Blood pressure - okay upto 140/85 </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin sensitivity - by age 70 20% of men & 30% of women have IGT-insulin insensitivity occurs with increased body fat/inactivity/diet rich in fat </li></ul>
  84. 85. BIOMARKERS <ul><li>Cholesterol/HDL ratio - desirable after middle age 4.5 or lower </li></ul><ul><li>Bone density - 55% loss in the neck of femur, 42% in lumbar spine in women. Overall mineral loss in men only 2/3 that of women-menopause starts off bone loss in women </li></ul>
  85. 86. BIOMARKERS <ul><li>Body temperature regulation -thermoregulatory ability diminishes with age, lessened ability to shiver, reduced thirst, lower rate of sweating, impaired renal function, impaired ability to concentrate urine </li></ul>
  86. 87. Feed Your Brain <ul><li>Lean protein, complex carbohydrates, and foods rich in omega 3 fatty acids (large cold water fish, such as tuna and salmon, walnuts, olive oil) are essential to brain function. </li></ul><ul><li>A healthy breakfast that includes protein, such as eggs, lean meat, or dairy products </li></ul>
  87. 88. Feed Your Brain <ul><li>Eliminating all simple carbohydrates at lunch (sugar, white bread or other products made from white flour such as white pasta, potatoes, and rice) can make a dramatic difference in energy and focus in the afternoon. </li></ul><ul><li>An additional benefit of skipping sugar and simple carbohydrates at lunch is that most people do not feel hunger until dinnertime. </li></ul>
  88. 89. Work Your Brain <ul><li>Your brain is like a muscle. The more you use it, the more you can use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Every time you learn something new your brain makes a new connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning enhances blood flow and activity in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>If you go for long periods without learning something new you start to lose some of the connections in the brain and you begin to struggle more with memory and learning. </li></ul>
  89. 90. Learning - brain elixir <ul><li>Strive to learn something new everyday, even if it is just for a short period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein said that if a person studies a subject for just 15 minutes a day in a year he will be an expert, and in five years he may be a national expert. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is good for your brain. </li></ul><ul><li>New learning actually caused increased brain density and weight. </li></ul>
  90. 91. Make Love For Your Brain <ul><li>Regular sexual contact had an important impact on physical and emotional well being of women. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual contact with a partner at least once a week led to more fertile, regular menstrual cycles, shorter menses, delayed menopause, increased estrogen levels, and delayed aging. </li></ul>
  91. 92. Sex and intimacy <ul><li>Intimacy and emotional bonding may be the most influential factors in the positive aspects of sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate sex is one of the keys to the brain's fountain of youth. </li></ul>
  92. 93. Music & the brain <ul><li>Use music to help develop concentration skills. </li></ul><ul><li>In a famous study at the University of California at Irvine, students who listened to Mozart's Sonata for 2 Pianos (k448) increased visual-spatial intelligence by about 10 percent </li></ul><ul><li>We had 12 teenagers play the game Memory while they listened to different types of music: rock, rap, classical, and no music. </li></ul><ul><li>Rap was associated with the worst performance. The rock group also scored poorly. </li></ul><ul><li>Interestingly, the group did slightly better with classical music than no music at all. </li></ul>
  93. 94. Treat Brain Problems Early <ul><li>Many people sabotage themselves by denying they have brain problems until significant damage has been done to their lives </li></ul><ul><li>the earlier people seek help for these problems the less negative impact they will have on their lives. </li></ul>
  94. 95. 7 STEPS TO FIND YOUR MIND! <ul><li>Learn Something New </li></ul><ul><li>Become a Lifelong Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Eat brightly colored foods </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep Well </li></ul><ul><li>Move More </li></ul><ul><li>Laugh More </li></ul>
  95. 96. Dr.R A Mashelkar <ul><li>Scientist heading the Council of Scientific And Industrial Research [CSIR] </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Science Congress,2000 and was entitled, &quot;New Panchsheel of the new millennium&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  96. 97. India’s Future <ul><li>&quot; Knowledge will not be a mere tool in development, knowledge itself will be development. &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; However, it is not information alone that matters; it is the insight that matters.  It is only through a process of inquiry,  that we can convert information into insight .  Therefore, we need to create 'inquiring societies', and not just 'information societies', If such inquiring societies emerge then the new knowledge revolution will lead to social, gender and economic equity.&quot; </li></ul>
  97. 98. several formidable challenges that remain in spite of all our achievements . <ul><li>exploding population </li></ul><ul><li>widespread poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Squalor </li></ul><ul><li>ruptures & cleavages based on region, religion, language and gender threatening the social fabric </li></ul><ul><li>urban congestion </li></ul><ul><li>wounded ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>critical power and energy situation.  </li></ul>
  98. 99. THE LEADER in 2010 <ul><li>Committed to growth </li></ul><ul><li>Committed to personal learning </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator & listener </li></ul><ul><li>Decision maker </li></ul><ul><li>Adept at social engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Competant </li></ul><ul><li>Pascale “stewards of a system, where the real intelligence and initiatives come from self organized teams” </li></ul>
  99. 100. several formidable challenges that remain in spite of all our achievements . <ul><li>exploding population </li></ul><ul><li>widespread poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy </li></ul><ul><li>Squalor </li></ul><ul><li>ruptures & cleavages based on region, religion, language and gender threatening the social fabric </li></ul><ul><li>urban congestion </li></ul><ul><li>wounded ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>critical power and energy situation.  </li></ul>
  100. 101. IQ and education <ul><li>Modern education is very good, but it seems to be based on a universal acceptance of the importance of developing the brain, that is, on intellectual education. </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient attention is given to the development of the person as a whole, in the sense of becoming a good person or developing a warm heart </li></ul>
  101. 102. Brains for Business - IQ <ul><li>Read your books </li></ul><ul><li>Get your degree </li></ul><ul><li>Show how smart you are with merit awards </li></ul><ul><li>It is important also to have CQ </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your knowledge up to date </li></ul><ul><li>Learn continually to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Are reasoning skills enough? </li></ul>
  102. 103. Brains + Heart - EQ <ul><li>Success at work also includes emotional intelligence - Daniel Goleman </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to get along with people </li></ul><ul><li>Good communication </li></ul><ul><li>The appropriate response to pain and pleasure </li></ul>
  103. 104. Brains + Heart + Soul SQ <ul><li>SQ is the basis for IQ & EQ - it is our ultimate intelligence - Danah Zohar & Dr.Ian Mitchell </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics & inner spirituality are important </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness based on contentment </li></ul><ul><li>Easing of suffering of others </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful relationships </li></ul><ul><li>An inner sense of being a part of the whole </li></ul>
  104. 105. Basic Human values <ul><li>a sense of caring </li></ul><ul><li>a sense of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>a sense of forgiveness . </li></ul><ul><li>As long as we are human beings, as long as we are part of human society, without these good human qualities we cannot be happy. </li></ul><ul><li>The very purpose of life is to find happiness, so there is no point in neglecting those very things which are directly related to making us happy. </li></ul>
  105. 106. Affection vs Aggression <ul><li>We really need to make more of an effort to promote these basic human values. </li></ul><ul><li>There is good reason to develop these qualities, because basically human nature is gentle. </li></ul><ul><li>The whole of our life is very much involved with love and affection. </li></ul><ul><li>From the beginning of our life upto death, aggression is only occasional. </li></ul>
  106. 107. IQ,EQ & SQ <ul><li>When we have inner strength and confidence we relate to others openly </li></ul><ul><li>when we have fear and self doubt we relate to others with suspicion. </li></ul><ul><li>we really need to make more of an effort to promote these basic human values , a sense of responsibility, a sense of caring, and a sense of forgiveness. </li></ul>
  107. 108. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The happiest people surround themselves with family and friends, don’t care about keeping up with the Joneses next door, lose themselves in daily activities and, most importantly, forgive easily.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  108. 109. Positive psychology is the idea of focusing on strengths and talents as opposed to shortcomings and weaknesses. <ul><li>Happiness doesn’t seem to be attached to money and things </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness is a state of being, not a state of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>So what does make people happy? </li></ul>
  109. 110. Flow <ul><li>According to Claremont University psychologist, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Life satisfaction occurs most often when people are engaged in absorbing activities that cause them to forget themselves, lose track of time and stop worrying.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Flow” is the term used to describe this phenomenon. </li></ul>
  110. 111. USA TODAY on November 14 “Helper’s High” <ul><li>The core of this article revolved around new research demonstrating that a helping spirit brings with it the benefit of helping you to both live longer and live healthier </li></ul><ul><li>“ A generous spirit may yield a generous life span.” </li></ul>
  111. 112. DAILY QUESTIONS <ul><li>What am I most committed to in my life? </li></ul><ul><li>What am I most grateful for in my life? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes me happy in my life? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I enjoy doing in my life? </li></ul><ul><li>Who do I love? </li></ul><ul><li>Who loves me? </li></ul>
  112. 113. DAILY QUESTIONS <ul><li>What are my top three goals in life? </li></ul><ul><li>If I knew I could not possibly fail, what would I most want to do? </li></ul><ul><li>What three things make me feel good? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I want to have, do and be ten years from now? </li></ul><ul><li>Once you answer these to your satisfaction, just go for it and live them to the full </li></ul>
  113. 114. So go out there and choose what you want to be never forgetting that all of us have dreams and are going after them . Wishing you all the best and Thank you. Please do send your mail to [email_address]