Brain and Its Functions- Part 2

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This presenation is part of four series presentation to help everyone to understand the functioning of brain. Some of the questions is can brain be changed?

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Brain and Its Functions- Part 2

  1. 1. Brain and Its Functions Part 2 Dr. Prithika Chary Consultant Neurologist and Neurosurgeon Adopted by Prof.K.Prabhakar, [email_address]
  2. 3. Components of the Nervous System <ul><li>Central Nervous System – Brain and Spinal Cord </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System – Cranial and Spinal nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Nervous System – parasympathetic and sympathetic </li></ul>
  3. 5. Basic subdivisions of the brain <ul><li>From the point of view of development and how the brain forms within the embryo, the brain can be subdivided into the </li></ul><ul><li>prosencephalon or forebrain, </li></ul><ul><li>the mesencephalon or midbrain, </li></ul><ul><li>and the rhombencephalon or hindbrain. </li></ul>
  4. 6. The forebrain <ul><li>In humans, most of the mass of the brain is within the forebrain. </li></ul><ul><li>The forebrain consists of the diencephalons, which includes structures such as the thalamus and hypothalamus. </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothalamus is a center for hormonal control as well as an integral part of the limbic system which governs various emotional states. </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>The outer, visible regions of these convolutions are the gyri (singular: gyrus). </li></ul><ul><li>The grooves are referred to as sulci (singular: sulcus), the deepest of which are sometimes called fissures. </li></ul>
  6. 9. The Frontal lobe – Motor/Intellect
  7. 10. The Temporal Lobe - Auditory
  8. 11. The Parietal lobe – Sensory/visuospatial
  9. 12. The Occipital lobe - Visual
  10. 13. The Sensorimotor strip
  11. 16. Modes of Thinking <ul><li>The upper (cerebral) left A analytical, mathematical, technical and problem solving. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower (limbic) left B controlled, conservative, planned, organized and administrative in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower (limbic) right C interpersonal, emotional, musical, spiritual and the &quot;talker&quot; modes. </li></ul><ul><li>Upper (cerebral) right D imaginative, synthesising, artistic, holistic and conceptual modes. </li></ul>
  12. 17. Benchmarks of brain development <ul><li>Inside the developing child, a complicated series of interactions between body and world. </li></ul><ul><li>Each step is dependent on the succession of previous steps; genetic make-up and environment collide at every juncture, shaping and stretching towards potential. </li></ul><ul><li>The young brain creates synapses by the thousands, putting to use the hundred billion nerve cells inherited at birth, and bringing to life the first awkward and unpracticed movements of limbs and digits. </li></ul>
  13. 18. Brian development in Child <ul><li>The twenty hours of sleep most infants require each day is a method of preserving metabolic energy for the enormous task of brain development that is occurring at an incredible rate. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first year alone, a child will learn, among hundreds of other things, to vocalize and imitate speech sounds, to reach for and grasp objects, and to turn toward sound </li></ul>
  14. 19. Milestones <ul><li>During this period, complex networks take shape in the brain, guiding these functions to categorize and connect with the child's world. </li></ul><ul><li>These milestones, by which we might generally mark progress, are not only the key events of early development, but also the very building blocks of skills to come, such as speaking, walking, catching a ball, or playing music. </li></ul>
  15. 20. Turning to sound <ul><li>Turning your gaze to the source of a sound requires a combination of information from vision, audition, and somatosensation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory maps of these systems are integrated in the superior colliculus, a structure that calculates where the sound is in space and how far to move your head to find the sound source. </li></ul>
  16. 21. The environment matters <ul><li>It is important to keep in mind that growth and development, language and physical maturation, intelligence and sense of self in the world, do not emerge in a vacuum, but rather arise in a complex, interwoven, and unique interaction between the child and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>A child's development defies simple textbook descriptions of isolated benchmarks -- children develop in the world, not on a growth chart. </li></ul><ul><li>We will study more about Nature VS Nurture in the next part of presentation. </li></ul>
  17. 22. Thank you <ul><li>Please go to the Part 3 of presentation which provides information on Nuroplasticity, Nature VS Nurture, APOPTOSIS process, memory, learning and other related concepts. </li></ul>

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