Developmental Psychology 2do Bimestre


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  • A young girl whose shema for girls includes girls play with dolls and not with trucks or girls can not be scientists will pay attention to, remember, and interact more with dolls than trucks, and she may avoid science activities
  • Stuctures to be understood as any of the categories of linguistics: phonology, syntax, morphology, etc.
  • Developmental Psychology 2do Bimestre

    1. 1. Escuela : Ponente : DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LEARNING Periodo : Octubre – Febrero 2010 Lic. Eliana Pinza Inglés Bimestre : II Bimestre
    2. 2. <ul><li>SECOND BIMESTER </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>LEARNING </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This change may be deliberate or unintentional for better or for worse, correct or incorrect, and conscious or unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To qualify as learning this change must be brought about by experience - by interaction of a person with his or her environment </li></ul></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><ul><li>Contiguity Association of two events because of repeated paring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus: event that activates behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response: observable reaction to a stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning Association of automatic responses (fear, sweating) with new stimuli. </li></ul></ul>Automatic responses = Respondents
    6. 7. <ul><li>Learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People actively operate on their environment to produce different kinds of consequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Consequences (follow behavior) that strengthen behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>Positive reinforcement Occurs when the consequence that strengths a behavior is the addition of a new stimulus Negative reinforcement Occurs when the consequence that strengths a behavior is the subtraction of a stimulus
    8. 9. <ul><li>Consequences that weakens or suppresses behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul>Presentation It occurs when th appereance of a stimulus following the behavior supresses or decreases the behaviour (For example, teachers assigning extra work) Removal It involves removing the stimulus (For example, no TV for a week)
    9. 10. <ul><li>Antecedents (events preceding behaviors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information about which behaviors will lead to positive consequences and which will lead to unpleasant ones </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. <ul><ul><li>Cueing is the act of providing a stimulus just before a particular behavior is supposed to take place. It is useful in setting the stage for behaviors that must occur at specific time, but are easily forgotten. (For example, working in pairs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes students need help learning to respond to a cue in an appropriate way. For this reason, it will be useful to provide an additional cue, called a prompt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt is a reminder that follows a cue to make sure the person reacts to the cue. (For example, remember to share ideas) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><ul><li>When teachers need to change inappropriate classroom behavior, they often employ applied behavior analysis . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is the application of behavioral learning principles to change behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It requires clear specification of the behavior to be changed, careful measurement of the behavior, analysis of the antecedents and reinforces that might be maintaining inappropriate behavior, and careful management of changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>In classrooms teachers can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly specify the behavior to be changed and note the current level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan a specific intervention using antecedents, consequences, or both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of the results, modify the plan if necessary </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. <ul><li>Bandura (1986) notes that observational learning includes four elements: paying attention, retaining information, producing behaviors, and being motivated to repeat the behaviors </li></ul>
    14. 16. <ul><ul><li>Attention: To learn through observation, we have to pay attention. In teaching, it is necessary to ensure students’ attention to the critical features of the lesson by making clear presentations and highlighting important points. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention: To imitate the behavior of a model, you have to remember it. Retention can be improved by mental rehearsal or by actual practice. Practice helps us remember the elements of the desired behavior (sequence of steps) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 17. <ul><ul><li>Production: involves a great deal of practice, feedback, and coaching about subtle points before we can reproduce the behavior of the model. Practice makes the behavior smoother and more expert. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation and Reinforcement: We may acquire a new behavior through observation, but we may not perform that behavior until there is some motivation to do so. If we anticipate being reinforced for imitating the actions, we may be more motivated to pay attention, remember, and reproduce the behavior </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. A general approach that views learning as an active mental process in which learners seek new information to solve problems and reorganize what they already know to achieve new insights, rather than simply receiving knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge is learned, and changes in knowledge make changes in behavior possible </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is a source of information that provides feedback about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed </li></ul>
    17. 19. <ul><ul><li>One of the most important elements in learning process is what the individual brings to new learning situations. What we already know is the foundation and frame for constructing all future situations. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. <ul><li>Domain-specific: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information that is useful in specific situation or topic (math, soccer, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information that is useful in many different kinds of tasks or situations (planning, solving problems) </li></ul></ul>
    19. 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term memory </li></ul></ul></ul>It is the initial processing that transforms incoming stimuli from the environment (sights, sounds, smells, etc.) into information so we can make sense of them It is the interface where new information is held temporarily and combined with knowledge from long-term memory, to solve problems or comprehend a lecture. Information that you are focusing on at a given moment Holds the information that is well learned
    20. 23. Information is encoded in sensory memory . In working memory , new information connects with knowledge from long-term memory . Thoroughly processed and connected information becomes part of long-term memory , and can be activated to return to working memory. Sensory memory Working memory Long-term memory
    21. 24. <ul><li>There are number of differences between working and long-term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information enters working memory very quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To move into long-term storage requires more time and a bit of effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas the capacity of working memory is limited, the capacity of long-term memory appears to be practically unlimited </li></ul></ul>
    22. 25. <ul><ul><li>Once information is securely stored in long-term memory, it can remain there permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to information in working memory is immediate because we are thinking about the information at that very moment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to information in long-term memory requires time and effort </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. <ul><li>One important requirement to save information in long-term memory is to integrate new information with knowledge already stored in long-term memory as you construct an understanding </li></ul>
    24. 27. <ul><ul><ul><li>Elaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul></ul>Adding meaning to new information by connecting with existing knowledge Material that is well organized is easier to learn and to remember, especially if the information is complex and extensive If you try to remember the information, it will be easier if the current context is similar to the original one
    25. 28. METACOGNITION Metacognition knowledge is used to regulate thinking and learning (Brown, 1987; Nelson, 1996). There are three essential skills that allow us to do this: planning, monitoring, and evaluating <ul><ul><li>Knowledge about knowing and learning </li></ul></ul>
    26. 29. <ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It involves deciding how much time to give to a task, which strategies to use, how to start, what resources to gather, what order to follow, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is the real-time awareness of “how I’m doing” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It involves making judgments about the processes and outcomes of thinking and learning “Should I change strategies?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 30. <ul><li>LEARNING AND TEACHING </li></ul><ul><li>ABOUT CONCEPTS </li></ul><ul><li>A concept: It is a general category of ideas, objects, people, or experiences whose members share certain properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts are abstractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They help us organize vast amounts of information into manageable </li></ul></ul>
    28. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>In early research, psychologists assumed that concepts share a set of defining attributes (distinctive features shared by members of a category) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 32. <ul><ul><li>Strategies for teaching concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teaching of concepts can combine both defining attributes and prototypes (best representative of a category) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concept attainment : It is a way of helping students construct an understanding of specific concepts and practice thinking skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 33. <ul><ul><ul><li>Lesson components : It is necessary to use four components: examples and nonexamples, relevant and irrelevant attributes, the name of the concept, and a definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A fruit is food with seeds in the edible parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(general category) (defining attributes) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 34. <ul><li>Visual aids can improve learning of many concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures, diagrams, or maps </li></ul>
    32. 35. <ul><ul><ul><li>Extending and connecting concepts: Once students have a good sense of a concept, they should use it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doing exercises </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solving problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any other activity that requires students to apply their new understanding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 36. Problem Solving <ul><li>Problem: Any situation in which you are trying to reach some goal and must find a means to do so </li></ul><ul><li>A problem </li></ul>Initial state (the current situation) A goal (the desired outcome) A path for reaching the goal (including operations or activities that move you toward the goal)
    34. 37. Problem solving is creating new solutions for problems General problem-solving strategies I Identify problems and opportunities D Define goals and represent the problem E Explore possible strategies A Anticipate outcomes and Act L Look back and Learn
    35. 38. <ul><li>Identifying: Problem finding </li></ul><ul><li>It is a critical first step and we have to spend time considering the nature of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Defining goals and representing the problem </li></ul><ul><li>To represent the problem and set a goal, it is important to fucus on relevant information, understand the words of the problem, and activate the right schema to understand the whole problem </li></ul>
    36. 39. <ul><li>Exploring possible solution strategies </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>In conducting your search for a solution there are two general kinds of procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm: Step-by-step procedure for solving a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristic: It is a general strategy that is particularly used to rapidly come to a solution that is hoped to be close to the best possible answer </li></ul>
    37. 40. <ul><li>Anticipating, Acting, and Looking back </li></ul><ul><li>After selecting the solution strategy, it is necessary to anticipate the consequences. After this, you need to implement it and evaluate the results by checking for evidence that confirms or contradicts your solution. </li></ul>
    38. 41. <ul><li>CREATIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>It is the ability to produce work that is original, but still appropriate and useful. It requires knowledge, flexibility, motivation, and persistence. Furthermore, social support plays an important role. </li></ul>
    39. 42. <ul><li>(Plucker et all., 2004) Creativity is important for an individual’s psychological, physical, social, and career success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important for teachers to promote it in the classroom because teachers are in a great position to encourage or discourage creativity through their acceptance or rejection of the unusual and imaginative. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 43. <ul><li>HOW TO BECOME AN EXPERT STUDENT? </li></ul><ul><li>The way something is learned influences how we remember and how we can apply the knowledge later. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of good learning strategies helps students learn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding what is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlining and highlighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking notes </li></ul></ul>
    41. 44. <ul><ul><li>Students must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be cognitively engaged (to focus attention on important aspects of the material) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invest effort (to make connections, elaborate, translate, organize, and recognize) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think and process deeply (the greater the practice and processing, the stronger the learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate and monitor their own learning (to make sense and notice when a new approach is needed) </li></ul></ul>
    42. 45. <ul><ul><ul><li>R Review headings and subheadings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E Examine boldface words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Ask, “What do I expect to learn” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D Do it - Read! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S Summarize in your own words </li></ul></ul></ul>Reading strategies <ul><ul><ul><li>C Who are the characters? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A What is the aim of the story? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P What problem happens? S How is the problem solved? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>K What do I already know? W What do I want to know? L At the end of the reading, what have I learned ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 46. <ul><li>SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura adds concern with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectations to social learning theory (emphasizes learning through observation of others). </li></ul>
    44. 47. <ul><ul><li>In social cognitive theory, internal and external factors are important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social Environmental (resources, consequences of actions, other people, and physical settings) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal factors (beliefs, expectations, knowledge) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors (individual actions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All of them influence and are influenced by each other. This interaction is called reciprocal determinism. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    45. 48. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher feedback can lead students to set higher goals. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If students seem to misunderstand, teachers may change instruction strategies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Personal factors Social influence Behavior Social environment
    46. 49. <ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy = A person’s sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulated learning = Process of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in order to reach goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are key elements of social cognitive theory that are important in learning and teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If learners have a high sense of efficacy in a given area, they will set higher goals, be less afraid of failure, and find new strategies when old ones fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulated learners are motivated to learn. They have the skill and the will to learn. </li></ul></ul>
    47. 50. <ul><li>Cognitive and Social Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist theories of learning focus on how people make meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners are active in constructing their own knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social interactions are important to knowledge construction </li></ul></ul>
    48. 51. <ul><ul><li>Psychological constructivists focus on how individuals use information, resources, and even help from others to build and improve their mental models and problem solving strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social constructivists see learning as increasing our abilities to participate with others in activities that are meaningful in the culture </li></ul></ul>
    49. 52. <ul><li>How is knowledge constructed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The realities and truths of the external world direct knowledge construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is acquired by constructing a representation of the outside world. Direct teaching, feedback, and explanation affect learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 53. <ul><ul><li>Internal processes such as Piaget’s organization, assimilation, and accommodation direct knowledge construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is constructed by transforming, organizing, and reorganizing previous knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both external and internal factors direct knowledge construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge is constructed based on social interactions and experience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    51. 54. <ul><li>MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>An internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>Intrinsic = It is associated with activities that are their own reward Extrinsic= It is created by external factors such as rewards and punishments
    52. 55. <ul><li>General approaches to motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorists: Emphasize extrinsic motivation caused by incentives, rewards, and punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic views: Stress the intrinsic motivation created by the need for personal growth </li></ul>
    53. 56. <ul><li>Cognitive views: Stress a person’s active search for meaning, understanding, and competence, and the power of the individual’s attributions and interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural views: Emphasize legitimate engaged participation and identity within a community </li></ul>
    54. 57. INTERESTS AND EMOTIONS How do interests and emotions affect learning? Learning and information processing are influenced by emotions. Students are more likely to pay attention to, learn, and remember events, images, and readings that provoke emotional responses or that are related to their personal interests
    55. 58. Motivation to learn in school Teachers are interested in a particular kind of motivation (student motivation to learn) . It involves taking academic work seriously, trying to get the most from it, and applying appropriate learning strategies in the process.
    56. 59. Decisions made by teachers can influence student motivation to learn T Task (the nature of the task that Ss are asked to do) A Autonomy (the autonomy Ss are allowed in working) R Recongnized (how Ss are recognized for their accomplishments) G Grouping (practices) E Evaluation (procedures) T Time (schedule of time in the classroom)
    57. 60. Social processes to learning <ul><li>Peers, parents, and teachers influence norms and values about school achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children tend to select friends that share their orientations and interests, and these peer groups influence children’s academic motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students with authoritative parents are more likely to choose positive peer groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If students have few or no friends, being liked by the teacher can be especially important </li></ul></ul>
    58. 61. Group work: Several students working together Cooperation: Working together with others to reach a shared goal Collaboration : A philosophy about how to deal with people that respects differences, shares authority, and builds on the knowledge of others
    59. 62. <ul><li>Cooperative learning: Arrangement in which students work in mixed-ability groups and are awarded on the basis of the success of the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Positive interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Individual accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative skills </li></ul><ul><li>Group processing </li></ul>
    60. 63. How large should a cooperative group be? It depends on learning goals: If the purpose is to review rehearse information or practice, 4 to 5 or 6 students is about the right size If the goal is to encourage each student to participate in discussions, problem solving, or computer learning, the groups of 2 to 4 members work best
    61. 64. <ul><li>When setting up cooperative groups it is important to balance the number of boys and girls </li></ul><ul><li>When there are just a few girls in a group, they tend to be left out of the discussions unless they are the most able or assertive members. </li></ul>
    62. 65. <ul><li>When there are only one or two boys in the group, they tend to dominate and be interviewed by the girls unless these boys are less able that the girls or are very shy. </li></ul><ul><li>For very shy and introverted students , individual learnining may be a better approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must monitor groups to make sure everyone is contributing and learning . </li></ul>
    63. 66. Materials monitor Recorder Quiet Captain
    64. 68. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>