Information and ICT Higher/Int 2 Business Management 2009-2010
Unit Outline <ul><li>What is information? </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Information ...
Data and Information <ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><li>collections of facts or quantities, which have been assembled in some...
Sources of Information <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><li>External <...
Primary Information <ul><li>first-hand information gathered and processed for a particular purpose </li></ul><ul><li>mainl...
Secondary Information <ul><li>second-hand information gathered for one purpose but reused for another </li></ul><ul><li>ma...
Internal Information <ul><li>data and information that come from the organisation’s own records eg sales records </li></ul...
External Information <ul><li>data and information that come from sources outwith the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>used f...
Primary Information <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Specific for purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Information is private </l...
Secondary Information <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of access </li></ul><ul><li>...
Internal Information <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate information after the business is established </li></ul...
External Information <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of sources available </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively ine...
Types of Information <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Definable </li></ul><ul><li>Measured </li></ul><ul><li>Express...
Types of Information <ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Written  –  text eg reports, memos, letters </li></ul><ul><li>...
Value of Information T imely A ccurate A ppropriate A vailable C omplete C oncise C ost-effective O bjective C cc O A aa T
Uses of Information in Business <ul><li>helps to monitor and control </li></ul><ul><li>assists in decision making </li></u...
Types of ICT <ul><li>Mainframe computer: </li></ul><ul><li>expensive and powerful computers eg Ministry of Defence and NAS...
Types of ICT <ul><li>Personal Computers (PC): </li></ul><ul><li>computers found in homes and offices – their power has inc...
Local Area Network (LAN) <ul><li>computers within an organisation or within a local area </li></ul><ul><li>owned by one or...
Wide Area Network (WAN) <ul><li>computers in remote locations are linked by telephone lines or satellite links </li></ul><...
The Internet <ul><li>a worldwide system of computer networks </li></ul><ul><li>includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages (...
The Internet <ul><li>can be used to advertise products </li></ul><ul><li>banking services - including e-commerce </li></ul...
E-commerce <ul><li>products displayed  on a website </li></ul><ul><li>customers can  order online  and can  pay electronic...
Electronic Mail <ul><li>fast and  efficient method  of communication </li></ul><ul><li>can be sent to  more than one perso...
Electronic Mail <ul><li>Some problems: </li></ul><ul><li>increase in  unnecessary communications  – important messages may...
Video Conferencing <ul><li>enables people in different locations to have meetings without the need to travel </li></ul><ul...
Interactive DVD <ul><li>used for  training exercises </li></ul><ul><li>users make choices  and see the  consequences  of t...
Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) <ul><li>involves  robots and computer-controlled machines  in production </li></ul><ul><l...
EPOS <ul><li>Electronic Point of Sale </li></ul><ul><li>records all purchases  made throughout the day </li></ul><ul><li>u...
Business Software <ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets </li></ul><ul><li>Des...
Costs of ICT <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>price of hardware/software </li></ul><ul><li>staff  training </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of ICT <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>increased speed of information handling  and decision making </li></ul>...
Gorfingly Good Deliveries <ul><li>You have an unlimited budget!  Please advise … </li></ul><ul><li>Gorfingly Good Deliveri...
Effects of ICT on Employees <ul><li>greater productivity -  fewer staff required </li></ul><ul><li>remaining staff will re...
Effects of ICT on Organisations <ul><li>can lead to  decentralised decision making </li></ul><ul><li>additional department...
Data Protection Act 1998 <ul><li>obtain  and  process information fairly and lawfully </li></ul><ul><li>register  the purp...
Computer Misuse Act 1990 <ul><li>accessing computer material without permission  e.g. looking at someone else's files  </l...
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 <ul><li>It gives the  creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works  ...
Freedom of Information Act 2002 <ul><li>The Freedom of Information Act came into force on 1st January 2005. </li></ul><ul>...
Congratulations <ul><li>You have completed </li></ul><ul><li>Information and ICT </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>Hi...
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HBM Info IT CMD

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HBM Info IT CMD

  1. 1. Information and ICT Higher/Int 2 Business Management 2009-2010
  2. 2. Unit Outline <ul><li>What is information? </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Value of Information </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of Information in Business </li></ul><ul><li>Types of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Business Software </li></ul><ul><li>Costs and Benefits of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of ICT </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Data and Information <ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><li>collections of facts or quantities, which have been assembled in some formal manner </li></ul><ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><li>data that has been processed into a form that will assist in decision-making and planning </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sources of Information <ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul>
  5. 5. Primary Information <ul><li>first-hand information gathered and processed for a particular purpose </li></ul><ul><li>mainly collected by observation, interview, questionnaire etc </li></ul>
  6. 6. Secondary Information <ul><li>second-hand information gathered for one purpose but reused for another </li></ul><ul><li>mainly collected from reference books, business and government statistics, market research companies, competitors, newspapers, Internet </li></ul>
  7. 7. Internal Information <ul><li>data and information that come from the organisation’s own records eg sales records </li></ul><ul><li>only people within the organisation can use this information </li></ul><ul><li>used for control purposes within the organisation </li></ul>
  8. 8. External Information <ul><li>data and information that come from sources outwith the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>used for decision-making and planning </li></ul><ul><li>analysis of factors outwith the organisation’s control </li></ul>
  9. 9. Primary Information <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Specific for purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Information is private </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Source can be verified </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Market research costs are high </li></ul><ul><li>Research flawed eg sample size </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents may have lied </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher bias </li></ul>
  10. 10. Secondary Information <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of access </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of sources </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>May not be relevant </li></ul><ul><li>May have author bias </li></ul><ul><li>May be out-of-date </li></ul><ul><li>Available to competitors </li></ul>
  11. 11. Internal Information <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate information after the business is established </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate records help achieve targets </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of access </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of setting up a recording system </li></ul><ul><li>New organisations have no information </li></ul><ul><li>Regular updating required </li></ul>
  12. 12. External Information <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of sources available </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for strategic decisions when used with PESTEC </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>May contain bias </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t guarantee integrity </li></ul><ul><li>May be out-of-date </li></ul><ul><li>Available to competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Time consuming to gather </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of Information <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Definable </li></ul><ul><li>Measured </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed in figures </li></ul><ul><li>Used for comparisons eg target monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Value judgements </li></ul><ul><li>Opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to analyse people’s views </li></ul><ul><li>What can be done to improve a service? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Information <ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Written – text eg reports, memos, letters </li></ul><ul><li>Oral – verbal eg telephone calls, presentations, meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial – pictures and photos </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical – graphs/charts eg pie, line, bar </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical – numbers eg tables, spreadsheets </li></ul>
  15. 15. Value of Information T imely A ccurate A ppropriate A vailable C omplete C oncise C ost-effective O bjective C cc O A aa T
  16. 16. Uses of Information in Business <ul><li>helps to monitor and control </li></ul><ul><li>assists in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>measures performance </li></ul><ul><li>identifies new business opportunities </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of ICT <ul><li>Mainframe computer: </li></ul><ul><li>expensive and powerful computers eg Ministry of Defence and NASA </li></ul><ul><li>Server computer: </li></ul><ul><li>runs server applications, often under heavy workloads, unattended, for extended time </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of ICT <ul><li>Personal Computers (PC): </li></ul><ul><li>computers found in homes and offices – their power has increased significantly over recent years </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Network: </li></ul><ul><li>PCs can communicate across networks (cabled or wireless in either a LAN or WAN ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Local Area Network (LAN) <ul><li>computers within an organisation or within a local area </li></ul><ul><li>owned by one organisation only </li></ul><ul><li>useful to share files and manage resources eg printing </li></ul>
  20. 20. Wide Area Network (WAN) <ul><li>computers in remote locations are linked by telephone lines or satellite links </li></ul><ul><li>there can be many owners/organisations linked to the system </li></ul><ul><li>communication is the main use rather than data transfer </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Internet <ul><li>a worldwide system of computer networks </li></ul><ul><li>includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages (www) – ability to cross reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File transfer (ftp) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRC (Internet Relay Chat) eg MSN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Internet <ul><li>can be used to advertise products </li></ul><ul><li>banking services - including e-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>staff may use the Internet inappropriately – need company policies in place </li></ul>
  23. 23. E-commerce <ul><li>products displayed on a website </li></ul><ul><li>customers can order online and can pay electronically </li></ul><ul><li>enables a worldwide market place </li></ul><ul><li>internet-only businesses cut costs as they don’t have the burden of large premises and high numbers of sales staff </li></ul>
  24. 24. Electronic Mail <ul><li>fast and efficient method of communication </li></ul><ul><li>can be sent to more than one person </li></ul><ul><li>can attach files eg graphs, electronic forms etc </li></ul><ul><li>messages can be prepared in advance </li></ul><ul><li>can be printed if necessary </li></ul><ul><li>can be forwarded onto others </li></ul>
  25. 25. Electronic Mail <ul><li>Some problems: </li></ul><ul><li>increase in unnecessary communications – important messages may get lost </li></ul><ul><li>reduces interpersonal communications </li></ul><ul><li>only of use if everyone is trained in using it and does use it </li></ul>
  26. 26. Video Conferencing <ul><li>enables people in different locations to have meetings without the need to travel </li></ul><ul><li>saves travelling and accommodation costs as well as lost work time due to travel </li></ul><ul><li>connections can be poor or disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>the number of people who can effectively take part in a video conference is limited </li></ul>
  27. 27. Interactive DVD <ul><li>used for training exercises </li></ul><ul><li>users make choices and see the consequences of their decision </li></ul><ul><li>a common example is flight simulation </li></ul>
  28. 28. Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) <ul><li>involves robots and computer-controlled machines in production </li></ul><ul><li>saves on labour costs </li></ul><ul><li>produces consistent quality </li></ul><ul><li>does not stop for rest breaks </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>breakdowns can halt production </li></ul><ul><li>expensive and time consuming to fix breakdowns </li></ul>
  29. 29. EPOS <ul><li>Electronic Point of Sale </li></ul><ul><li>records all purchases made throughout the day </li></ul><ul><li>used to predict demand and assist in the placing of orders </li></ul><ul><li>linked with store cards provides customer profiling </li></ul><ul><li>can use customer profiles to alter the marketing mix to suit individual geographical requirements </li></ul>
  30. 30. Business Software <ul><li>Word Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets </li></ul><ul><li>Desk-Top Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Productivity Software </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation software </li></ul>
  31. 31. Costs of ICT <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>price of hardware/software </li></ul><ul><li>staff training </li></ul><ul><li>loss of efficiency (until familiar) </li></ul><ul><li>errors/glitches </li></ul><ul><li>data loss or corruption </li></ul><ul><li>commercial espionage </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Safety </li></ul>
  32. 32. Benefits of ICT <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>increased speed of information handling and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>flexibility of integrated systems </li></ul><ul><li>increased productivity and administrative efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced reputation </li></ul><ul><li>competitive edge </li></ul><ul><li>reduction in staffing costs </li></ul><ul><li>relocation of administrative centres to cost effect locations </li></ul><ul><li>facilitates home-working and tele-sales centres </li></ul>
  33. 33. Gorfingly Good Deliveries <ul><li>You have an unlimited budget! Please advise … </li></ul><ul><li>Gorfingly Good Deliveries wish to move into the technology era and invest in ICT </li></ul><ul><li>They are a haulage firm providing services to other businesses up and down the country. </li></ul><ul><li>They need ICT in order to manage customer lists, finance, win new contracts, communicate with drivers, schedule meetings for managers, prepare final accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition they have thought about opening another office in the North of Scotland. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 10 offices with 2 admin staff and 3 drivers per branch. </li></ul>Work in Groups of 3
  34. 34. Effects of ICT on Employees <ul><li>greater productivity - fewer staff required </li></ul><ul><li>remaining staff will require retraining </li></ul><ul><li>older staff may feel under pressure being unable to cope </li></ul><ul><li>relations with customers change </li></ul><ul><li>staff do not have the same personal contact with each other </li></ul><ul><li>staff may take advantage of homeworking </li></ul>
  35. 35. Effects of ICT on Organisations <ul><li>can lead to decentralised decision making </li></ul><ul><li>additional departments may be created </li></ul><ul><li>eg e-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>redundancies and delayering may occur </li></ul><ul><li>the span of control of managers may decrease </li></ul>
  36. 36. Data Protection Act 1998 <ul><li>obtain and process information fairly and lawfully </li></ul><ul><li>register the purposes for which they hold it </li></ul><ul><li>not disclose the information in any way that is different from those purposes </li></ul><ul><li>only hold information that is adequate, relevant and not excessive for the purposes they require </li></ul><ul><li>only hold accurate information and keep it up-to-date where necessary </li></ul><ul><li>not hold the information for longer than necessary </li></ul><ul><li>give individuals copies of the information held about themselves if they request it – amending/erasing as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>keep information safe </li></ul>
  37. 37. Computer Misuse Act 1990 <ul><li>accessing computer material without permission e.g. looking at someone else's files </li></ul><ul><li>accessing computer material without permission with intent to commit further criminal offences e.g. hacking into the bank's computer and increasing the amount in your account </li></ul><ul><li>altering computer material without permission e.g. writing a virus to destroy someone else's data </li></ul><ul><li>writing a virus or deliberately spreading one is illegal.   </li></ul>
  38. 38. Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 <ul><li>It gives the creators of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works the right to control the ways in which their material may be used. </li></ul><ul><li>The rights cover: broadcast and public performance, copying, adapting, issuing, renting and lending copies to the public . In many cases, the creator will also have the right to be identified as the author and to object to distortions of his work. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright arises when an individual or organisation creates a work, and applies to a work if it is regarded as original, and exhibits a degree of labour, skill or judgement. </li></ul><ul><li>If a work is produced as part of employment then normally the work belongs to the person/company who hired the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Only the owner, or his exclusive licensee can bring proceedings in the courts against an infringement . </li></ul>
  39. 39. Freedom of Information Act 2002 <ul><li>The Freedom of Information Act came into force on 1st January 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives you the right to ask any public body for all the information they have on any subject you choose.  </li></ul><ul><li>Unless there’s a good reason,  they have to give it you within a month . You can also ask for all the personal information they hold on you. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Congratulations <ul><li>You have completed </li></ul><ul><li>Information and ICT </li></ul><ul><li>in </li></ul><ul><li>Higher/Int 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Business Management </li></ul>

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