Business Information and ICT Int 2 Business Management
Sources of Information <ul><li>Primary  – information collected by the business itself. Sometimes called Field research. I...
Sources of Information <ul><li>Internal  – information collected within the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Employee...
More sources available than primary May have a financial cost External Reliable, verifiable No financial costs Internal Ea...
Types of Information <ul><li>Written  – info presented on paper or computer screen </li></ul><ul><li>Oral  – info communic...
Qualitative & Quantitative Info <ul><li>Qualitative information is descriptive in nature and includes people’s feelings an...
Uses of Information in Business <ul><li>Monitoring and control  – used to ensure firm is heading in expected direction </l...
Mainframe <ul><li>Large, powerful supercomputers (like Cray) capable of multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Used mainly for sc...
Mainframe +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous memory </li></ul><ul><li>Vast processing power </li></ul><ul><li>Extrem...
PC and Laptops <ul><li>Home, Office or mobile computers </li></ul><ul><li>Now have Notebooks and Palmtops </li></ul><ul><l...
PC and Laptops +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Good value for money </li></ul><ul><li>Ever increasing capacity and process...
Networks <ul><li>LANs (Local Area Networks) are linked to a geographically close server.  </li></ul><ul><li>WANs (Wide Are...
Networks +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Employees linked together </li></ul><ul><li>Share data and files </li></ul><ul><l...
E-mail <ul><li>Transfer of text, graphics and other information between computer users via telephone lines.   </li></ul><u...
E-mail +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Instant communication </li></ul><ul><li>Same message can be sent to many people </l...
Videoconferencing <ul><li>Sound and vision linking of people at different locations </li></ul><ul><li>Enables a virtual me...
Videoconferencing +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Saves accommodation and travel </li></ul><ul><li>Saves travelling time <...
Internet <ul><li>International network of computers </li></ul><ul><li>In existence since 1969! </li></ul><ul><li>Main uses...
Internet <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Access to vast amounts of information </li></ul><ul><li>Access to wider global market...
Interactive CD or DVD <ul><li>Interactive media used for staff training </li></ul><ul><li>CD holds 650 MB </li></ul><ul><l...
Interactive CD or DVD +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper than using consultants </li></ul><ul><li>One-on-one - More i...
Computer Aided Manufacture <ul><li>Computers and robots used to control machines </li></ul>
CAM +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Saves labour costs </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent quality </li></ul><ul><li>Twentyfourse...
EPOS <ul><li>Electronic Point of Sale </li></ul><ul><li>Allows an electronic record kept of all purchases and returns </li...
EPOS +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Records purchases & returns </li></ul><ul><li>Aids stock control </li></ul><ul><li>Ca...
Database <ul><li>Database  – data saved and organised in an electronic filing system </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping and sorting...
Spreadsheet <ul><li>Spreadsheet  - an electronic worksheet used to manage numbers and carry out calculations. </li></ul><u...
Word Processing <ul><li>Word Processing  – an electronic typewriter </li></ul><ul><li>  Prepare letters, memos, reports </...
Desktop Publishing <ul><li>Desktop Publishing  – package that allows professional documents to be created </li></ul><ul><l...
Presentation Packages <ul><li>Presentation Packages  – projects an image onto large screen </li></ul><ul><li>  Used for pr...
Computer-aided Design <ul><li>Computer-aided Design (CAD)  – computerised process for creating new parts or products or al...
Decision-Making Packages <ul><li>Decision-Making Packages  – analytical tools for managers </li></ul><ul><li>Produces stat...
Multi-media systems <ul><li>Use a variety of ways of storing, processing, </li></ul><ul><li>transferring and retrieving in...
Teletext <ul><li>A useful source of business information picked up on TV sets, but is ‘read only’. </li></ul><ul><li>CEEFA...
Facsimile Transmission (Fax) <ul><li>A fax sends over a telephone line identical copies of any document. </li></ul><ul><li...
Benefits of IT <ul><li>Increases productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces waste </li></ul><ul><li>Increases speed of work </...
Costs of IT <ul><li>Costly to develop, install and maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Training staff is costly and timely </li></u...
Benefits of Software <ul><li>Information can be handled very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Speed and quality of decision-makin...
Costs of Software <ul><li>Expensive to buy </li></ul><ul><li>Staff training required and costly </li></ul><ul><li>Staff le...
Uses of IT <ul><li>Assists decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Assists with providing information for staff </li></ul><ul><l...
Effects of IT on Employees <ul><li>Greater productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retraining required </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in...
Effects of IT on Organisation <ul><li>Decentralisation possible </li></ul><ul><li>Additional departments/jobs may be creat...
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>- A new Data Protection Act was passed in 1998 which supersedes the 1984 Act, which will be repealed....
<ul><li>1. FIRST PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully.&quot;  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>4. FOURTH PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date&...
<ul><li>7. SEVENTH PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be taken agai...
<ul><li>Personal data covers both facts and opinions about the individual. It also includes information regarding the inte...
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Business Information and ICT

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Business Information and ICT

  1. 1. Business Information and ICT Int 2 Business Management
  2. 2. Sources of Information <ul><li>Primary – information collected by the business itself. Sometimes called Field research. It is first hand information. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Market Research data, Consumer Research </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary – information already published. Also called Desk research. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Government Reports, MINTEL Reports </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sources of Information <ul><li>Internal – information collected within the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Employee or customer records </li></ul><ul><li>External – information collected from outside the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: National Statistics, Rivals’ accounts </li></ul>
  4. 4. More sources available than primary May have a financial cost External Reliable, verifiable No financial costs Internal Easy to obtain, wider number of sources Less expensive than primary, may not be relevant Secondary Reliable, verifiable expensive Primary Benefits + Costs - Type of Info
  5. 5. Types of Information <ul><li>Written – info presented on paper or computer screen </li></ul><ul><li>Oral – info communicated by voice </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial – info displayed by a photo or picture </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical – info displayed as a graph or chart </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical – info presented in numbers rather than text </li></ul>
  6. 6. Qualitative & Quantitative Info <ul><li>Qualitative information is descriptive in nature and includes people’s feelings and attitudes towards a topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Why is Cheese & Onion your favourite flavour of crisps? </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative information is measurable and expressed numerically. It deals in facts and figures. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: How often do you eat a packet of crisps in a week? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Uses of Information in Business <ul><li>Monitoring and control – used to ensure firm is heading in expected direction </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-making – before making any decision, managers have to weigh up alternatives or different sides of an argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring performance - workers’ output may be measured against a standard set by the worker or colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying new business opportunities – analysing consumer trends may lead to a new product or service to fill new customer needs </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mainframe <ul><li>Large, powerful supercomputers (like Cray) capable of multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Used mainly for scientific and engineering purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>NASA is one such user. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Mainframe +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous memory </li></ul><ul><li>Vast processing power </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely fast </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Hugely expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing dependency </li></ul>
  10. 10. PC and Laptops <ul><li>Home, Office or mobile computers </li></ul><ul><li>Now have Notebooks and Palmtops </li></ul><ul><li>Have hinged screen </li></ul><ul><li>LCD display </li></ul><ul><li>Battery powered </li></ul><ul><li>Trackpad instead of mouse </li></ul>
  11. 11. PC and Laptops +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Good value for money </li></ul><ul><li>Ever increasing capacity and processing power </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Short shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to viruses and breakdowns </li></ul>
  12. 12. Networks <ul><li>LANs (Local Area Networks) are linked to a geographically close server. </li></ul><ul><li>WANs (Wide Area Networks) use telecommunications such as cable and satellite to link up across continents </li></ul>
  13. 13. Networks +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Employees linked together </li></ul><ul><li>Share data and files </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Server breakdowns </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance on backups </li></ul>
  14. 14. E-mail <ul><li>Transfer of text, graphics and other information between computer users via telephone lines. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires internet access and valid email address </li></ul>
  15. 15. E-mail +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Instant communication </li></ul><ul><li>Same message can be sent to many people </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-effective </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Junk mail </li></ul><ul><li>Staff may abuse use </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail has same legal liability as written material </li></ul>
  16. 16. Videoconferencing <ul><li>Sound and vision linking of people at different locations </li></ul><ul><li>Enables a virtual meeting between people without having to travel </li></ul>
  17. 17. Videoconferencing +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Saves accommodation and travel </li></ul><ul><li>Saves travelling time </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Poor connections </li></ul><ul><li>Time lags </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to pick up body language </li></ul>
  18. 18. Internet <ul><li>International network of computers </li></ul><ul><li>In existence since 1969! </li></ul><ul><li>Main uses: </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing Information </li></ul>
  19. 19. Internet <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Access to vast amounts of information </li></ul><ul><li>Access to wider global market </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Check reliability of information </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Staff may abuse access </li></ul>
  20. 20. Interactive CD or DVD <ul><li>Interactive media used for staff training </li></ul><ul><li>CD holds 650 MB </li></ul><ul><li>DVD holds 17 GB </li></ul>
  21. 21. Interactive CD or DVD +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper than using consultants </li></ul><ul><li>One-on-one - More involving for staff </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Employees unsupervised </li></ul><ul><li>Finite questions </li></ul><ul><li>No human contact </li></ul>
  22. 22. Computer Aided Manufacture <ul><li>Computers and robots used to control machines </li></ul>
  23. 23. CAM +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Saves labour costs </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent quality </li></ul><ul><li>Twentyfourseven production </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Costly breakdowns </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t think for themselves </li></ul>
  24. 24. EPOS <ul><li>Electronic Point of Sale </li></ul><ul><li>Allows an electronic record kept of all purchases and returns </li></ul><ul><li>EFTPOS is when Switch and Delta are used. (Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale) </li></ul>
  25. 25. EPOS +/- <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Records purchases & returns </li></ul><ul><li>Aids stock control </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for market research </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>Barcodes may be faulty </li></ul><ul><li>Information has to be entered correctly on Barcode </li></ul>
  26. 26. Database <ul><li>Database – data saved and organised in an electronic filing system </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping and sorting records </li></ul><ul><li>Searching for information </li></ul><ul><li>Filing reports </li></ul><ul><li>Mail merge </li></ul>
  27. 27. Spreadsheet <ul><li>Spreadsheet - an electronic worksheet used to manage numbers and carry out calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>  Produces charts and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>What if scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets, wages, sales figures, estimates </li></ul>
  28. 28. Word Processing <ul><li>Word Processing – an electronic typewriter </li></ul><ul><li>  Prepare letters, memos, reports </li></ul><ul><li>Edit text </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics and images </li></ul><ul><li>Mail merge </li></ul>
  29. 29. Desktop Publishing <ul><li>Desktop Publishing – package that allows professional documents to be created </li></ul><ul><li>Text, graphics, and images </li></ul><ul><li>High quality documents </li></ul><ul><li>Magazines, newsletters, price lists, posters, forms, booklets, manuals, catalogues, leaflets </li></ul>
  30. 30. Presentation Packages <ul><li>Presentation Packages – projects an image onto large screen </li></ul><ul><li>  Used for presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Can use audio and movie clips </li></ul><ul><li>Easily available handouts and notes </li></ul>
  31. 31. Computer-aided Design <ul><li>Computer-aided Design (CAD) – computerised process for creating new parts or products or altering existing ones </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used by architects, designers and engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Also used in animation and in simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations can be made without redrawing </li></ul>
  32. 32. Decision-Making Packages <ul><li>Decision-Making Packages – analytical tools for managers </li></ul><ul><li>Produces statistics and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Helps managers evaluate information </li></ul>
  33. 33. Multi-media systems <ul><li>Use a variety of ways of storing, processing, </li></ul><ul><li>transferring and retrieving information. </li></ul><ul><li>They can involve: </li></ul><ul><li>Text and sound </li></ul><ul><li>Text, sound and graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Text, sound and video </li></ul><ul><li>Video and sound </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive elements (voice command, touch screen etc…) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Teletext <ul><li>A useful source of business information picked up on TV sets, but is ‘read only’. </li></ul><ul><li>CEEFAX is the BBC version. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Facsimile Transmission (Fax) <ul><li>A fax sends over a telephone line identical copies of any document. </li></ul><ul><li>It is fast and costs same as telephone call. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Benefits of IT <ul><li>Increases productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces waste </li></ul><ul><li>Increases speed of work </li></ul><ul><li>Improves accuracy and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Increases access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Improves communication & decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Saves floor space </li></ul>
  37. 37. Costs of IT <ul><li>Costly to develop, install and maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Training staff is costly and timely </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction may not be easy </li></ul><ul><li>Requires new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Breakdowns very costly and inconvenient </li></ul><ul><li>Deskilled workers leads to low motivation </li></ul>
  38. 38. Benefits of Software <ul><li>Information can be handled very quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Speed and quality of decision-making improved </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer errors made making calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Improved accuracy and quality </li></ul>
  39. 39. Costs of Software <ul><li>Expensive to buy </li></ul><ul><li>Staff training required and costly </li></ul><ul><li>Staff learning curve can be costly </li></ul><ul><li>Time can be lost due to glitches </li></ul><ul><li>External threats - viruses </li></ul>
  40. 40. Uses of IT <ul><li>Assists decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Assists with providing information for staff </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain complete and accurate business records </li></ul><ul><li>Aids effective communication within an organisation </li></ul>
  41. 41. Effects of IT on Employees <ul><li>Greater productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Retraining required </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in customer relations – more impersonal yet quicker response </li></ul><ul><li>Less personal contact </li></ul>
  42. 42. Effects of IT on Organisation <ul><li>Decentralisation possible </li></ul><ul><li>Additional departments/jobs may be created </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer staff required </li></ul><ul><li>Changes to span of control – narrower due to less staff or wider due to autonomy of staff </li></ul>
  43. 43. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>- A new Data Protection Act was passed in 1998 which supersedes the 1984 Act, which will be repealed. </li></ul><ul><li>There are eight Data Protection Principles in the Act. However, the new Principles are not exactly the same as those in the 1984 Act. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>1. FIRST PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>2. SECOND PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data shall be obtained only for specified and lawful purposes, and shall be processed only in a manner compatible with those purposes.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>3. THIRD PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purposes for which they are processed.&quot; </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>4. FOURTH PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>5. FIFTH PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data processed for any purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for those purposes&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>6. SIXTH PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects under this Act.&quot; </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>7. SEVENTH PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Appropriate technical and organisational measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>8. EIGHTH PRINCIPLE </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Personal data shall not be transferred to a country or territory outside the European Economic Area, unless that country or territory ensures an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects in relation to the processing of personal data.&quot; </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Personal data covers both facts and opinions about the individual. It also includes information regarding the intentions of the data controller towards the individual, although in some limited circumstances exemptions will apply. </li></ul><ul><li>With processing, the definition is far wider than before. For example, it incorporates the concepts of 'obtaining', holding' and 'disclosing'. </li></ul>

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