Chapter05 allen7e

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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

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Chapter05 allen7e

  1. 1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 5 Developmental Disabilities: Causes and Classifications
  2. 2. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences • Biological factors – Biological insult refers to interference with or damage to an individual’s physical structure or functioning. – Genetic disorders resulting in abnormal biological development may be caused by deviations in chromosomal structure or by abnormal single genes.
  3. 3. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) – Chromosomal abnormalities are usually biological accidents; that is, they are one-time occurrences and do not affect future pregnancies.
  4. 4. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Down Syndrome – This condition is caused by three number 21 chromosomes. – It is recognizable by a flat face, upturned eyes, small ears, short stature, and the simian crease. – Heart and intestinal abnormalities are common.
  5. 5. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Fragile X Syndrome – Caused by a break on the X chromosome present in males – Sex-linked disorder given to sons by their mothers – Characterized by large ears, language delays, autism-like behaviors, hyperactivity, and delayed motor development
  6. 6. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Metabolic disorders – These cause a breakdown somewhere in the complex chemical activities needed to metabolize food. – The breakdown can destroy, damage, or alter cells. – Metabolic disorders are single-gene defects, such as PKU.
  7. 7. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Abnormal gene disorders – Tay-Sachs, an accumulation of fatty tissues around the brain that eventually leads to death. – Cystic fibrosis, a buildup of mucus in the lungs, which makes it difficult to breathe. – Breakthrough medical treatments are now helping these individuals live longer and more productive lives.
  8. 8. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Abnormal gene disorders (continued) – Sickle-cell anemia, the red blood cells are not formed correctly, making it difficult to navigate the bloodstream. It is often accompanied by joint pain and ulcers. – Duchenne muscular distrophy, present in males where the muscles deteriorate.
  9. 9. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Prenatal infections and intoxicants – Rubella—can lead to devastating lifelong and severe disabilities. – CMV—at birth these children appear normal. Later in life, they develop mental retardation, deafness, and diseases of the eye. – Herpes simplex—results in inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
  10. 10. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Prenatal infections and intoxicants (continued) – AIDS—passed to the unborn child through the birth canal or breast milk—leaves a child’s immune system helpless to fight off disease. – Diabetes—maternal diabetes can leave devastating effects on the child. – Toxemia—women who experience toxemia often deliver the baby prematurely, leading to later complications.
  11. 11. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Prenatal infections and intoxicants (continued) – Alcohol and other drugs have been proven to lead to birth defects such as fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effect.
  12. 12. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Maternal malnutrition and protein deficiency – Lack of protein during the first trimester can lead to immature development of the brain and nervous system. – It can also lead to small babies that are born prematurely.
  13. 13. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Birth complications – Lack of oxygen to the brain—anoxia can occur. – Premature babies can suffer hemorrhaging. – C-sections may need to be performed if the life of the mother or infant is in danger.
  14. 14. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Causes of Developmental Differences (continued) • Complications following birth – Meningitis—a virus or bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the protective covering of the brain and the spinal column— can lead to brain damage. – Encephalitis—swelling of the brain—can also lead to brain damage. – Lead poisoning—poisoning from lead found in lead-based paint and older homes.
  15. 15. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Poverty • Nutritional deficiency – Children living in poverty have inadequate nutrition. – WIC was designed to eliminate some of the counter effects of poverty. – WIC provides funds to pregnant mothers and then their newborn to purchase healthy foods.
  16. 16. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Poverty (continued) • Inadequate health care and education – Living in poverty, many women do not seek out prenatal care, leaving themselves open for premature labor and other complications. – Regular medical checkups are also good for the newborn child. – Without health insurance, good care is not always possible, so immunizations fall behind.
  17. 17. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Poverty (continued) • Homelessness and substandard housing – Living in these conditions can cause health problems by being exposed to contaminants in the environment. • Single-Parent Families – Single mothers in particular tend to work multiple jobs, leaving their children unattended or with little supervision.
  18. 18. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Poverty (continued) • Child Care – Quality child care can combat the effects of poverty, but people living in poverty cannot often afford quality. – Centers need to offer the best with what they have, making quality available to all.
  19. 19. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Poverty (continued) • Combating poverty – Early intervention and care can eliminate some of the effects of poverty and give children the chance to be successful in life.
  20. 20. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Developmental Disabilities • To receive funding, children must be categorized. The following are categories approved by the federal government: – Specific learning disabilities, having a deficit between IQ and ability – Speech and language disorders, having difficulty with receptive or expressive language
  21. 21. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Developmental Disabilities (continued) – Mental retardation—IQ is 70 or below, and there are significant delays in other areas of development as well. – Emotional disorders—children have difficulty controlling behavior and reading emotional cues. – Multiple disabilities—a combination of one or more disabilities.
  22. 22. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Developmental Disabilities (continued) – Hearing loss—a hearing loss so severe that individuals cannot process spoken language, even with hearing aids or other forms of amplification. – Orthopedic impairments—a child has limited use of the limbs. – Health impairments—the child has difficulty maintaining developmental milestones due to health problems.
  23. 23. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Developmental Disabilities (continued) – Visual impairments—the children’s vision is so poor that they cannot use that sense to learn from their environment. – Combined vision and hearing loss—a child has loss of both vision and hearing and incurs learning difficulties form them. – Autism—a child retreats into “his or her own world,” language often stops, and the child begins to turn inward.
  24. 24. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Classification of Developmental Disabilities (continued) – Traumatic brain injury—this category of injuries (either open- or closed-wound) to the head cause tearing of the nerve fibers, bruising of the brain against the skull, or bruising of the brain stem.

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