Human Exceptionality Chapter 14


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by Michael Hardman
(c) Cengage Learning 2010

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Human Exceptionality Chapter 14

  2. 2. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 1Identify the disabilities that may accompany cerebral palsy.Focus 2What is spina bifida myelomeningocele?Focus 3Identify specific treatments for individuals with spinal cord injuries.Focus 4Describe the physical limitations associated with muscular dystrophy. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 5What are some of the key elements of treating adolescents withHIV and AIDS?Focus 6What are the basic interventions in treating individuals withasthma?Focus 7Describe the immediate treatment for a person who isexperiencing a tonic/clonic seizure.Focus 8Identify three problems that individuals with diabetes mayexperience later in life. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. CHAPTER FOCUS POINTSFocus 9Identify present and future interventions for the treatment ofchildren and youth with cystic fibrosis.Focus 10Describe the impact on body tissues of the sickling of red bloodcells.Focus 11Describe the focus of educational interventions for individuals withtraumatic brain injuries. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION IDEA  Students with physical disabilities = orthopedic impairment  Students with health disorders = other health impaired  Medically fragile  Technologically dependent Individuals often require a diverse array of highly specialized services to realize their maximum potential. ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION Types of Disabilities:  Physical  HealthDisorders  Trauma ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. CEREBRAL PALSY A group of chronic conditions that affect muscle coordination & body movement  Notcurable  Carefully targeted interventions & therapies can help There are three basic types:  Diplegia  Hemiplegia  Quadriplegia ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. CEREBRAL PALSY Individuals with cerebral palsy are considered to be multi-disabled  Hearing deficits  Speech & language problems  Intellectual deficits  Visual disabilities & general perceptual problems ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. SPINA BIFIDA Abnormal opening in spinal column frequently causes some form of paralysis  May/may not affect intellectual functioning Spina bifida occulta - mild condition in which a small slit is present in one or more of the vertebral structures  Little impact on a developing infant ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. SPINA BIFIDA Subdivisions of spina bifida cystica  Spina bifida meningocele - a tumor‑like sac on the back of infant which can be open or closed  Contains spinal fluid but no nerve tissue  Spina bifida myelomeningocele - sac does contain nerve tissue  Paralysis or partial paralysis  Lack of bowel & bladder control ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. SPINAL CORD INJURY Spinal cord is traumatized or severed  Site& nature of the insult  Other serious damage to other parts of body Paraplegia Quadriplegia Hemiplegia ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY Group of inherited & progressive conditions & characterized by loss of ability to use arms & to walk effectively due to fatty tissues that gradually replaces muscle tissue Degree of seriousness influenced by heredity, age of onset, physical location, nature of onset & rate of progression  Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy (DMD) is most severe form of muscular degeneration ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. AIDS & HIV-1 AIDS is an impaired cellular immunity due to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) & recurrent bacterial diseases Series of stages of disease:  Transmission  Production of antibodies  Immune system decline  Symptoms of damaged immune system  Recurrent &chronic: immune system fails Patterns of disease development in children ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. ASTHMA Swelling and inflammation of the air passages that transport air from the mouth and nose to the lungs – Diminished breathing capacity – Coughing – Wheezing – Tightness in chest – Excessive sputum ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. SEIZURE DISORDERS (EPILEPSY) “Brain disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, signal abnormally… causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness” (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2009a, p. 1) Types of seizures:  Tonic/clonic  Absence ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. DIABETES Developmental or hereditary disorder characterized by inadequate secretion of insulin There are two types:  Insulindependant diabetes mellitus, type 1, or juvenile diabetes  Non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult onset diabetes ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. DIABETES Process  Glucose builds up in blood, causing extreme hunger, thirst, & frequent urination Accompanying complications  Blindness  Cardiovascular disease  Kidney disease ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  18. 18. CYSTIC FIBROSIS Inherited, systemic, generalized disorder of secretion glands that begins at conception Abnormal secretions obstruct the functions of lungs, pancreas, & sweat glands ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Abnormality of hemoglobin molecule found within red blood cells  Blood oxygen level decreases, red blood cells go through a distortion process called sickling Anemia:  Sickled cells block microvascular channels, which can cause extreme pain  May affect any organ system in body  Significant negative effects on physical growth & development ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. TRAUMATIC & ACQUIRED BRAININJURY IDEA definition:  An acquired injury to the brain  Caused by an external force  Total or partial functional disability, psychosocial impairment, or both  Adversely affects educational performance ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. TRAUMATIC & ACQUIRED BRAININJURY Impacts:  Informationprocessing  Social behaviors  Memory capacities  Reasoning & thinking  Speech & language skills  Sensory & motor abilities ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. TRAUMATIC & ACQUIRED BRAININJURYAcquired Brain Injury (ABI)  Traumatic brain injuries  Non-traumatic brain injuries: Strokes, vascular accidents, infectious diseases, anoxic injuries, illegal drug use, poisoning ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. TRAUMATIC & ACQUIRED BRAININJURY TBI/Closed Head Injury  Rapid acceleration & deceleration of brain  Tearing of nerve fibers  Bruising of brain tissue against skull  Brain stem injuries, & swelling  Primarydamage: direct outcome of initial impact  Secondary damage: may occur with passage of time ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. CHARACTERISTICS• Cognition Speech Language Social and behavioral aspects Neuromotor and physical disabilities Vision and hearing may be impaired Physical functioning ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. EDUCATIONAL SUPPORTS &SERVICES Appropriate teaching activities  High expectations  Positive behavioral support  Precise feedback  Organizational strategies & practice Educational services  Problem solving  Social behaviors  Expressive &receptive language skills  Writing skills  Assistive technology ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. EDUCATIONAL SUPPORTS &SERVICES Short IEPs  Flexibility & responsiveness are essential Interdisciplinary transition teams  Post-secondary education  Employment ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.