Chapter12 allen7e

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EDU 221 Children With Exceptionalities

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Chapter12 allen7e

  1. 1. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 12 The Developmental-Behavioral Approach
  2. 2. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend • Historical influences – Maturationists believe that development is independent of experience. – Constructivists say that is not entirely true. There needs to be a match between developmental level and experience.
  3. 3. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend (continued) • The problem of the match – Providing materials for children at the right time in the right way is a concern for teachers. – Materials should lead to rewarding experiences, and children should feel proud that they did it themselves.
  4. 4. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend (continued) • Learning from success – Teachers break learning down into small steps and reward the success of mastering the little steps. – Children then are motivated to learn more.
  5. 5. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmental and Behavioral Principles: A Blend (continued) • Environmental arrangements – A prepared learning environment matched to each child’s current skill levels – Materials and activities sequenced in small enough segments to provide both success and challenge – Emphasis on learning through play and active involvement with appropriate materials – Responsive teachers who serve as guides and facilitators rather than instructors
  6. 6. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices • Every child can learn – Teachers need to believe that every child can learn. – There needs to be a responsive learning environment.
  7. 7. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) • Reinforcement procedures – Negative reinforcement • Strengthen behavior by removing an unpleasant consequence. – Intrinsic reinforcement • Feelings of accomplishment from completing a task, discovering something new, or solving a problem.
  8. 8. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) – Positive reinforcement • A pleasant consequence for doing a behavior, increasing its likelihood. – Adult social reinforcement • Children turn to adults to see how to react to behaviors.
  9. 9. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) – Teacher behaviors that have a strong impact on children: • Verbal responsiveness • Descriptive praise • Physical proximity • Physical contact • Physical assistance • Providing things that children want
  10. 10. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) – Natural and logical consequences • Natural consequences—occur without teacher intervention • Logical consequences—set up by adults as results to a child’s behavior
  11. 11. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) • Withdrawing or withholding reinforcers – Taking away a desired object as a result of behavior – Teachers may • Ignore behavior • Remove materials that are causing the behavior • Remove the child from the activity
  12. 12. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) – Incompatible behaviors • Two behaviors that counteract each other cannot be present at the same time. • Example: walking and running cannot occur together. – Catch the child being good • When the child is good, praise the child, increasing the good behavior.
  13. 13. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) • Punishment – Punishment stops a behavior for the moment, but does not cause behavior to change. – Side effects of punishment • Effects are undesirable. If you yell to stop a behavior, you are modeling yelling. The children begin to yell.
  14. 14. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) • Discipline versus punishment – Punishment stops a behavior for the moment, but nothing is gained. – Discipline guides the child to learn a new response or behavior.
  15. 15. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) – Reminders, redirections, and reprimands • Remind a child of the expected behavior. • Redirect them to a different behavior. • Reprimand with a verbal warning to stop a behavior.
  16. 16. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) – Sit and watch • Child sits at the edge of the play activity and watches. • Child learns consequence. • Child learns appropriate play.
  17. 17. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Behavior Principles and Practices (continued) – Time-out • Used as a last resort. • All reinforcement is removed. • Children do not learn what to do in time-out, just what not to do.
  18. 18. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Step-by-Step Learning • Task analysis is breaking down a task into small steps that can be rewarded upon accomplishment. • Builds confidence in the child to be independent.
  19. 19. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Step-by-Step Learning (continued) • Observation and task analysis – Teacher observes a child doing a task. – Teacher sees when the child needs help. – Teacher breaks the task down into small steps for the child. – Teacher rewards the child for success at each step.
  20. 20. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Step-by-Step Learning (continued) • Prompting, fading, cueing – Physical and verbal prompts help the child. – Fading is the removing of prompts as the child becomes competent. – Some prompts may be physical. – Guide the child through the steps to be independent.
  21. 21. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Step-by-Step Learning (continued) • Amount and timing of reinforcement – The amount varies from child to child. – It needs to be enough to change the behavior, but not so much that the child expects it. – Timing needs to be close to the behavior so that the child knows what is being rewarded.
  22. 22. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Step-by-Step Learning (continued) • Praise – Praise should be real and descriptive. – Avoid using “good boy” or “well done.” – Tell the child what was good or well. – Phrase it so that the child feels good about himself or herself, not just pleasing others.
  23. 23. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning by Imitation • Children learn by watching. • They learn through the television, their peers, their parents, and caregivers. • It is do as I do.
  24. 24. ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning by Imitation (continued) • Competition is inappropriate – Comparing children’s progress to another child does not improve development. – Children should be compared to their own earlier learning. – Children then compete to better themselves, rather than to beat someone else.

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