Inquiry Project 3 Down Syndrome


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Inquiry Project 3 Down Syndrome

  1. 1. Down Syndrome Lori Elpers October 1, 2009 Education 373.003
  2. 2. Experience <ul><li>I use to have a minor in special education, but I then dropped it because it was going to take me one year longer to graduate. I did take a couple of classes for special education and became very interested in Down Syndrome specifically. </li></ul><ul><li>My neighbor, who I use to babysit for, had a child two years ago who has down syndrome. I have got to spend time with her and have noticed something different and would like to more about this disability. </li></ul><ul><li>In high school, I helped in the special education class. In the class, there were two students who have down syndrome and I always wanted to know more about it. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Questions <ul><li>Do all children with down syndrome develop slower than other children? </li></ul><ul><li>Can doctors diagnose down syndrome while the child is in the mothers womb? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there certain kinds of toys or textures that help children with down syndrome? What should they be around? </li></ul><ul><li>What kinds of features make children with down syndrome different? </li></ul><ul><li>Can children with down syndrome be in a regular classroom? If so, then what should a teacher know? </li></ul><ul><li>Can children with down syndrome get their license, live on their own, and have a regular job? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview <ul><li>“ Down syndrome is a set of physical and mental traits caused by a gene problem that happens before birth. Children with Down syndrome tend to have certain features, such as a flat face and a short neck. They also have some degree of mental retardation. This varies from person to person, but in most cases it is mild to moderate. </li></ul><ul><li>Down syndrome is a lifelong condition. But with care and support, most children with Down syndrome can grow up to have healthy, happy, productive lives.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. Development <ul><li>“ By 5 years of age, many children with Down syndrome can achieve some of the same developmental targets as their peers, if this is expected of them. Most will be walking, toilet trained and able to feed themselves and dress with minimal help.” </li></ul><ul><li> / </li></ul><ul><li>“ Children with Down syndrome may be developmentally delayed. A child with Down syndrome is often slow to turn over, sit, stand, and respond. This may be related to the child's poor muscle tone. Development of speech and language abilities may take longer than expected and may not occur as fully as parents would like. However, children with Down syndrome do develop the communication skills they need.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Development Continue Area of Development Mile Stone Age for Child with Down Syndrome Other children Gross motor skills (moving around) Holds head steady in sitting position Sits alone Stands alone Walks alone 3-9m 6-16m 12-38m 13-48m 1-4m 5-9m 9-16m 9-17m Fine motor skills and eye hand coordination Follows object with eyes Reaches out and grasps objects Passes objects from hand to hand Builds a tower of two 1Ó cubes Copies a circle 1.5-8m 4-11m 6-12m 14-32m 36-60m 1-3m 2-6m 4-8m 10-19m 24-40m Communication skills Babbles ÒDaDaÓ, ÒMamaÓ Responds to familiar words First words spoken with meaning Shows needs by gesture Two word phrases 7-18m 10-18m 13-36m 14-30m 18-60m 5-14m 5-14m 10-23m 11-19m 15-32m Personal and social skills Smiles when talked to Feeds self with biscuit Drinks from cup Dry by day Bowel control 1.5-4m 6-14m 12-23m 18-50m 20-60m 1-2m 4-10m 9-17m 14-36m 16-48m
  7. 7. Diagnosis <ul><li>“ Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling are two tests that can be used to look for Down syndrome during the first half of your pregnancy. However, there is a slight risk that these tests can cause a miscarriage. Therefore, these tests are used only when there is a high chance of a genetic problem in the baby (such as a mother age 35 or older).” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ Blood tests typically have been offered around the 16th week of pregnancy to screen for Down syndrome, spina bifida and various other chromosomal disorders.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ During the first days and months of life, some disorders may be immediately diagnosed. Congenital hypothyroidism, characterized by a reduced basal metabolism, an enlargement of the thyroid gland, and disturbances in the autonomic nervous system, occurs slightly more frequently in babies with Down syndrome. A routine blood test for hypothyroidism that is performed on newborns will detect this condition if present.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. Features of Children <ul><li>“ It is important to remember that no one person with Down syndrome will have all of the features described here.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A baby with Down syndrome has some distinct facial features which can include almond shaped eyes (due to epicanthal folds), light-colored spots in their eyes (called Brushfield spots), a small, somewhat flat nose, a small mouth with a protruding tongue, and small ears. They also have round faces and somewhat flatter profiles. “ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ Heart defects present from birth are often present in people with Down syndrome. Early death is often caused by cardiac abnormalities.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cognitive disability . Most children with Down syndrome have mild to moderate cognitive disability. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Defects-About half of children with Down syndrome are born with a heart defect. Most defects are diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases such as hypothyroidism, celiac disease, and eye conditions.” </li></ul><ul><li>http:// -syndrome-symptoms </li></ul>
  9. 9. Features of Children continue <ul><li>“ Other physical features seen in Down syndrome include a single crease across the palms of their hands, short stubby fingers and a fifth finger or pinky that curves inward (clinodactyly). They have a smaller head that is somewhat flattened in the back (brachycephaly) and straight hair that is fine and thin. In general, they tend to have short stature with short limbs, and can have a larger than normal space between the big and second toes.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Child With Down Syndrome Child without Down Syndrome
  10. 10. Child With Down Syndrome Child without Down Syndrome Features of Children with Down Syndrome The lines on the palm of their hands are different. There is one main crease in the middle of his or her hand unlike others peoples who have three main creases.
  11. 11. Education <ul><li>“ They are the same as for all other children; which is to equip children with Down syndrome to lead independent adult lives in the community. Most will need some degree of support from friends, family and services, but education will make a significant difference to the level of independence achieved in work, social and leisure life.” </li></ul><ul><li> / </li></ul><ul><li>“ Children with Down syndrome often require a multisensory learning experience , using as many channels of input as possible, and involving repetition with expansion and reinforcement of previously learned skills.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. Education Continue <ul><li>“ Educating those with Down Syndrome has, in the past, been very difficult, due in large part to a condition called 'short-term auditory processing impairment', also called 'short-term verbal memory'. Their ability to understand and retain what they hear is very limited, thus new channels have been studied in hopes of instilling knowledge using less traditional methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Educators have found that using images paired with words helps Down Syndrome children understand and remember words and phrases, as well as role-playing games and drama. These involve physical activity and visual cues. Music, as well, has been shown to be another dimension in learning; using songs, rhymes and rhythms the children have shown a greater ability to retain information. </li></ul><ul><li>There is still the verbal hurdle of speaking, which is quite difficult for these children, because they don't quite understand the concept of connecting words to the motion of speaking, and it is difficult for them to form words. But there has been much progress over the years in teaching both children and adults who suffer from Down Syndrome.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Education Continue <ul><li>“ Most children with Down syndrome can be included in a regular classroom. Your child may need an adapted curriculum and may sometimes attend special classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Be involved with your child's education. Children with disabilities, such as those related to Down syndrome, have a legal right to education. These laws also protect your rights as a parent to be fully informed about or challenge educational decisions concerning your child.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  14. 14. Activities for Babies <ul><li>“ Place you baby on his belly to encourage the development of head control and the muscles of arms, hips, and back. </li></ul><ul><li>Place your baby on his side to encourage eye-hand coordination, bringing his hands together, and hand-to-mouth movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Place your baby on his back and help develop the muscles on the front of his body. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your baby to play in a sitting position. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide play experiences for the following skill areas: visual tracking, grasping, reaching, releasing, bilateral/midline, and eye-hand coordination. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to provide sensory rich experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your baby to play with mobiles, rattles, basic cause-effect toys, and balls. </li></ul><ul><li>Play music while your baby plays </li></ul><ul><li>Use black and white objects and pictures as well as colorful objects to encourage your baby to look at or visually follow objects as your move them left to right and up and down. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your baby to reach for objects placed in front of and above him, and on both sides. Encourage him to reach for objects across his midline. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage activities that bring his hands together. </li></ul><ul><li>Give your baby opportunities to release objects in to large containers. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage activities that help develop isolation of finger movement.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. Activities for Toddlers <ul><li>“ Provide play experiences to help develop grasp, release, bilateral/midline, eye-hand coordination, manual dexterity, and self-care skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your child to play with household items, buttons, lids, containers, balls, nesting cups, books, crayons, blocks, shape objects, puzzles, and more complex cause and effect toys. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your child to play with objects that involve in/out and on/off concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to provide sensory rich experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your child to release small objects into narrow-nicked containers. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your toddler to grasp writing utensils and scribble on paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for your child to stack blocks of varying sizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your toddler to use both hands together in activities such as turning pages of books, using scissors, and stringing large beads or other objects on thick string. </li></ul><ul><li>Have your child help dress his or herself.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. Activities for Preschoolers <ul><li>“ Continue to provide play experiences to help develop eye-hand coordination skills, bimanual and manual dexterity skills, and self-care skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Have your child play with sand and water toys, puzzles, Legos, dress-up clothes, puppets, blocks, balls, a workbench with tools, and cups and dishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Have your child copy and cut out different shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your child to play games with everyday life skills, do art activities, and string beads, including stringing small beads on thin strings. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your child to color pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Give your child the opportunity to continue to increase his independence with dressing skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage your child to participate in family household tasks.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  17. 17. Life Style <ul><li>“ Kids with Down syndrome can go to regular schools, make friends, enjoy life, and get jobs when they're older.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ There are no separate registrations of persons with down syndrome that drive. If they pass the tests they drive like all of us.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>I read many story about people with down syndrome having jobs and living on their own. Some of them even got married. </li></ul>
  18. 18. What you should do as a Parent <ul><li>“ As a parent of a child with down syndrome, you play an important role in helping your child reach his or her full potential. Most families choose to raise their child, while some consider foster care or adoption. Support groups and organizations can assist you in making the best decision for your family. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a child with Down syndrome is full of challenges and accomplishments. Common frustrations and frequent highs and lows can all lead to exhaustion. Take good care of yourself so you have the energy to enjoy your child and attend to his or her needs.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  19. 19. Statistics <ul><li>“ About 1 in 800 babies is born with Down Syndrome. Though popular belief is that babies with it are born mostly to older mothers, in fact 80% of these babies are born to mothers under age 35. More mothers under age 35 give birth, than those over 35, thus raising the percentage of babies with Down Syndrome born to the younger group of moms.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ Down syndrome occurs in roughly 1 of every 750 births in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The risk of having a child with Down syndrome is less than 1 in 2,500 among young women. </li></ul><ul><li>The risk of having a child with Down syndrome increases to roughly 1 in 350 when women reach 35 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>After age 45, the risk of having a child with Down Syndrome is about 1 in 25.” </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  20. 20. Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// /publications/pubs/ </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// -syndrome-symptoms </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> / </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>