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Multicultural Education


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This is a presentation under the subtopic of Anthropological Foundations of Education.

Published in: Education
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Multicultural Education

  1. 1. • According to Banks and Banks (1995) “Multicultural education as a field of study is designed to increase educational equity for all students.” • According to James A. Banks (1997) “Multicultural education is an idea, an educational reform movement, and a process.” Multicultural Education is…
  2. 2. Multicultural Education is… • According to Paul Gorski (2010) “Multicultural education is a progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and responds to discriminatory policies and practices in education.”
  3. 3. Goals of Multicultural Education • Creating a safe, accepting, and successful learning environment for all • Increasing awareness of global issues • Strengthening cultural consciousness • Strengthening intercultural awareness • Teaching students that there are multiple historical perspectives • Encouraging critical thinking • Preventing prejudice and discrimination
  4. 4.  James Albert Banks, an educator sometimes called the “father of multicultural education.”  Director of the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington  Discuss the 4 Approaches of Multicultural Education (Multicultural Curriculum Reform) James Banks
  5. 5. The Four Approaches of Multicultural Education (Multicultural Curriculum Reform) 1.) The Contributions Approach 2.) The Additive Approach 3.) The Transformation Approach 4.) The Social Action Approach
  6. 6. 1.) The Contributions Approach • This approach reflects the least amount of involvement in multicultural education approaches. • selecting books and activities that celebrate holidays, heroes, and special events from various cultures. • For example, spending time reading about Dr. Martin Luther King in January is a common practice that falls into this category. In this approach, culturally diverse books and issues are not specified as part of the curriculum (Banks, 1999).
  7. 7. 2.) The Additive Approach • In this approach content, concepts, themes, and perspectives are added to the curriculum without changing its basic structure. • This involves incorporating literature by and about people from diverse cultures into the mainstream curriculum without changing the curriculum. • For example, examining the perspective of a Native American about Thanksgiving would be adding cultural diversity to the traditional view of Thanksgiving. However, this approach does not necessarily transform thinking (Banks, 1999).
  8. 8. 3.) The Transformation Approach • This approach actually changes the structure of the curriculum. • This encourages students to view concepts, issues, themes, and problems from several ethnic perspectives and points of view. • For example, a unit on Thanksgiving would become an entire unit exploring cultural conflict. This type of instruction involves critical thinking and involves a consideration of diversity as a basic premise (Banks, 1999).
  9. 9. 4.) The Social Action Approach • transformation approach plus activities for social change • Students are not only instructed to understand and question social issues, but to also do something about important about it. • For example, after participating in a unit about recent immigrants to North America, students may write letters to senators, Congress, and newspaper editors to express their opinions about new policies (Banks, 1999).
  10. 10.  Multicultural education increases productivity because a variety of mental resources are available for completing the same tasks and promotes cognitive and moral growth among people.  Multicultural education increases creative problem solving skills through the different perspectives applied to the same problem to reach solutions.
  11. 11.  Multicultural education increases positive relationships through achievement of common goals, respect, appreciation, and commitment to equality among the intellectuals at institutions of higher education.  Multicultural education decreases stereotyping and prejudice through direct contact and interactions among diverse individuals.
  12. 12. • Multicultural education renews vitality of society among the richness of the different cultures of its members and fosters development of a broader and more sophisticated view of the world.
  13. 13. Remember: A key goal of multicultural education is to change schools so that all students will have an equal opportunity to learn.