3.%20 Structural%20 Kinesiology


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3.%20 Structural%20 Kinesiology

  1. 1. Structural Kinesiology KIN172
  2. 2. Functional Anatomy <ul><li>The study of muscles, bones, and joints involved in movement </li></ul><ul><li>How many bones in the body? </li></ul><ul><li>- More than ½ in the hands and feet </li></ul><ul><li>How many muscles in the body? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Skeletal systems <ul><li>206 bones make up the skeletal system, which provides: </li></ul><ul><li>Bone: matrix of inorganic salts and collagen </li></ul><ul><li>Osteocytes: bone cells </li></ul><ul><li>– Osteoblasts: cells that create bone </li></ul><ul><li>- Osteoclasts: cells that resorb bone </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of the Skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>• Leverage </li></ul><ul><li>• Support </li></ul><ul><li>• Protection (brain, internal organs) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage (fat and minerals) </li></ul><ul><li>• Blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) </li></ul><ul><li>*Critically important for movement </li></ul>
  4. 4. Skeleton may be divided into : - The Axial skeleton - The Appendicular skeleton
  5. 5. Axial Skeleton <ul><li>Forms the axis of the body and supports/ protects the organs of the head, neck, and trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebral column </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs </li></ul><ul><li>Sternum </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory ossicles ‘ear bones’ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>Composed of the bones of the upper and lower extremities and the bony girdles that anchor the joints of the axial skeleton. </li></ul><ul><li>Shoulder and pelvic girdles </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reference Positions <ul><li>Anatomical Position </li></ul><ul><li>All directional terms that describe the relationship of one body part to another assume the body </li></ul><ul><li>is in the anatomical position </li></ul><ul><li>Subject standing with upright posture, </li></ul><ul><li>feet parallel and close, </li></ul><ul><li>palms facing forward </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly used </li></ul>
  8. 8. Directional Terminology <ul><li>Anterior </li></ul><ul><li>In front, or front part </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The quadriceps is located at the anterior aspect of </li></ul><ul><li>the thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior </li></ul><ul><li>Behind, or back part </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The triceps are located </li></ul><ul><li>at the posterior aspect of the arm </li></ul>
  9. 9. Directional Terminology <ul><li>Proximal </li></ul><ul><li>Nearest the trunk or midline </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The elbow is proximal to the wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Distal </li></ul><ul><li>Further away from the trunk or midline </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The distal aspect of the tibia is near </li></ul><ul><li>the ankle </li></ul>
  10. 10. Directional Terminology <ul><li>Superior </li></ul><ul><li>Above, higher </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The head is superior to the shoulders </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior </li></ul><ul><li>Below, lower </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The shoulders are inferior to the head </li></ul>
  11. 11. Directional Terminology <ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Farther from, outside </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The fibula is lateral to the tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Medial </li></ul><ul><li>Closer to the midline, inside </li></ul><ul><li>The hip adductors are located medially </li></ul>
  12. 13. Planes of the Human Body <ul><li>Sagittal or Anterioposterior Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Divides the body into left and right halves </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal or Lateral Plane </li></ul><ul><li>Divides the body into front and back halves </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse/horizontal plane </li></ul><ul><li>Divides the body into top and bottom halves </li></ul>
  13. 14. General Movements <ul><li>Abduction - lateral movement away from the midline of the trunk in the frontal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Adduction - movement medially toward the midline of the trunk in the frontal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion - bending movement that results in a decrease in joint angle by bring bones together. </li></ul><ul><li>Extension - Straightening movement that results in an increase of the joint angle by moving bones apart. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Movement of the ankle and foot <ul><li>Eversion - Turning the sole of the foot outward or laterally in the frontal plane; abduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Inversion - Turning the sole of the foot inward or medially in the frontal plane; adduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion - Flexion movement of the ankle that results in the top of the foot moving toward the anterior tibia bone in the sagittal plane. </li></ul><ul><li>Plantar flexion- Extension movement of the ankle that results in the foot and/or toes moving away from the body in the sagittal plane. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Types of Bones <ul><li>Long Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Long cylindrical shaft, which functions as levers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phalanges: bones of the toes and fingers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metatarsals: arch of the foot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metacarpals: fingers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tibia and fibula: leg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Femur: thigh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radius, ulna, humerus: upper arm and forearm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Types of Bones <ul><li>Flat Bones </li></ul><ul><li>Broad surface for muscle attachments or protection of underlying organs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ilium: “hip region” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribs, sternum, chest area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle: shoulder girdle, scapula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial bones: head </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Types of Bones <ul><li>Short bones </li></ul><ul><li>small, transfers forces and absorbs shock </li></ul><ul><li>carpals: wrist </li></ul><ul><li>tarsals: foot/ankle </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular bones </li></ul><ul><li>many physical features for muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>vertebrae (24), sacrum, spine, </li></ul><ul><li>maxilla: facial bones </li></ul>
  18. 19. Muscles <ul><li>Characteristics of Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>• Irritability - Ability to respond to stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Contractility - Ability to shorten when it receives sufficient stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>• Extensibility - Ability to stretch/lengthen beyond resting length (protective mechanism) </li></ul><ul><li>• Elasticity – Ability to return to resting length after being stretched (protective mechanism) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Functions of Muscle <ul><li>Produce movement </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain postures and positions </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilize joints </li></ul><ul><li>Other functions </li></ul><ul><li>– Support and protect visceral organs </li></ul><ul><li>– Alter and control cavity pressure </li></ul><ul><li>– Maintain body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>– Control entrances/exits to the body </li></ul>
  20. 21. Gross structure of Muscle <ul><li>Epimysium – sheath covering the entire muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Perimysium – sheath covering bundles of muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Endomysium - sheath covering individual fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Myofibrils - strands of contractile filaments within muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>* Actin (thin filaments) and Myosin (thick filaments) </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>- Cytoplasm of muscle cell </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcoplasmic reticulum (within the sarcoplasm) </li></ul><ul><li>- Specialized endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>- Storage site for calcium </li></ul>
  21. 22. Fiber Type <ul><li>Type I ( Slow twitch) </li></ul><ul><li>- oxidative </li></ul><ul><li>- red (because of high myoglobin content) </li></ul><ul><li>* myoglobin transfers O2- carried in the blood to mitochondria and act as O2 store in muscles </li></ul><ul><li>- fatigue resistant, contract slowly </li></ul><ul><li>- endurance athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Type IIa (Fast twitch) </li></ul><ul><li>- similar to Type 1, - high mitochondria content </li></ul><ul><li>- fatigue resistant, increased capacity to produce ATP </li></ul><ul><li>- distance runners, and endurance athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Type IIb (Fast twitch) </li></ul><ul><li>- white, low myoglobin, low mitochondrial content, </li></ul><ul><li>- high force production over short period </li></ul><ul><li>- high intensity events – weight lifting, sprinters, jumpers </li></ul>
  22. 23. Roles of Muscle <ul><li>Agonist: (prime mover) functions to cause a movement </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist: functions to resist movement </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizer: functions to fixate an area so another movement can occur </li></ul><ul><li>Synergist: assist another muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralizer: functions to prevent undesired movement </li></ul>
  23. 24. Muscle Contraction <ul><li>Isometric: no change in muscle length during contraction </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Holding arms out to sides/ pushing against a wall </li></ul><ul><li>Isotonic exercise (change in length ) </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric: muscle length shortens during contraction </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Up phase of a sit-up </li></ul><ul><li>Eccentric: muscle length increases during contraction </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Lowering phase of squat </li></ul><ul><li>Isokinetic: speed constant during a movement/contraction </li></ul>