chapter 02 week 2 lecture 1


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chapter 02 week 2 lecture 1

  1. 1. PTHA 1513 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY Week 2: Lecture 1 Elaine Wilson, PT
  2. 2. Today’s Theme Song 
  3. 3. Goals for Today <ul><li>Describe the components of the axial versus appendicular skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Define the primary components found in bone </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the 5 types of bones found in the human skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the 3 primary classifications of joints and give an anatomic example of each </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the components of a synovial joint </li></ul>
  4. 4. Goals for Today - cont’d <ul><li>Describe the seven different classifications of synovial joints in terms of mobility (degrees of freedom) and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an anatomic example of each of the 7 different classifications of synovial joints </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the 3 primary materials found in connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how tendons and ligaments support the structure of a joint </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how muscles help to stabilize a joint </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the effects of immobilization on the connective tissues of a joint </li></ul>
  5. 5. CHAPTER 2 Structure & Function of Joints
  6. 6. Axial versus Appendicular Skeleton <ul><li>Axial skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull, hyoid bone, ribs, and vertebral column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms central, semi-rigid bony axis of body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendicular skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones of appendages—or extremities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes scapula in upper extremity and pelvis in lower extremity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Bone Tissue Types <ul><li>Cortical (compact) bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense and extremely strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically lines outermost bone portion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs compressive forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cancellous bone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Porous and lightweight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically composes inner bone portions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redirects forces toward weight-bearing sources </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Bone Anatomy <ul><li>Diaphysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central shaft of bone, a thick hollow tube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed mostly of cortical bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epiphyses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portions of bone arising from diaphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily composed of spongy bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits weight-bearing forces across body </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Bone Anatomy – cont’d <ul><li>Articular cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines articular surface of each epiphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts as shock absorber between joints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin, tough membrane covering long bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secures attachment of muscles and ligaments to bone </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Bone Anatomy – cont’d <ul><li>Medullary canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central hollow tube within long bone diaphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores bone marrow; provides passage for arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endosteum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane that lines medullary canal surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses cells important for forming and repairing bones </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Bone Types <ul><li>Long bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains an obvious axis or shaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded bone portion at each shaft end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include femur, humerus, and radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length, width, and height are about equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An example includes carpal bones of the hand </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bone Types – cont’d <ul><li>Flat bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically flat or slightly curved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often base for expansive muscular attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include scapula and sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irregular bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide variety of shapes and sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sesamoid (appear similar to sesame seed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encased within muscle tendons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the tendon and increase the muscle’s leverage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Joint Classification <ul><li>Synarthrosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Junction between bones allowing little to no movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary function: firmly bind bones together and transmit forces from one bone to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amphiarthrosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed primarily by fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow limited amounts of motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary function: provide shock absorption </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Joint Classification – cont’d <ul><li>Diarthrosis (synovial joint) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation that contains a fluid-filled joint cavity between two or more bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes seven uniquely functioning categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All synovial joints share seven common attributes </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 7 Common Elements of Synovial Joints <ul><li>1. Synovial fluid: provides joint lubrication and nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>2. Articular cartilage: dissipates and absorbs compressive forces </li></ul><ul><li>3. Articular capsule: connective tissue that surrounds and binds the joint together </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  16. 16. 7 Common Elements of Synovial Joints – cont’d <ul><li>4. Synovial membrane: produces synovial fluid </li></ul><ul><li>5. Capsular ligaments: thickened regions of connective tissue that limit excessive joint motion </li></ul><ul><li>6. Blood vessels: provide nutrients to the joint </li></ul><ul><li>7. Sensory nerves: transmit signals regarding pain and proprioception </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  17. 17. Synovial Joint Classification <ul><li>Hinge joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows motion in only one plane about a single axis of rotation, similar to the hinge of a door </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex- the humeroulnar joint (elbow) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pivot joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows rotation about a single longitudinal axis of rotation, similar to the rotation of a doorknob </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex- the proximal radioulnar joint </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d <ul><li>Ellipsoid joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convex elongated surface mated with a concave surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows motion to occur in two planes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex- radiocarpal (wrist) joint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ball-and-socket joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation between spherical convex surface and cup-like socket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows wide ranges of motion in all three planes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex- hip joint </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d <ul><li>Plane joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation between two relatively flat bony surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows limited amount of motion; may slide and rotate in many different directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex- intercarpal joints of the hand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saddle joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One concave and one convex surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows extensive motion, primarily in two planes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex- carpometacarpal joint of the thumb </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Synovial Joint Classification – cont’d <ul><li>Condyloid joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation between a large, rounded, convex member and a relatively shallow concave member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often these joints allow 2 degrees of freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex- tibiofemoral (knee) joint </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  21. 21. Composition of Connective Tissues <ul><li>All connective tissues supporting the joints of the body are composed of fibers, ground substance, and cells </li></ul><ul><li>These biologic materials are blended in various proportions on the basis of the joint’s mechanical demands </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  22. 22. Fiber Types <ul><li>Type I collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thick, rugged fibers that resist elongation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose ligaments, tendons, and fibrous capsules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type II collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinner and less stiff than type I fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a flexible woven framework for maintaining the general shape and consistency of structures </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Fiber Types – cont’d <ul><li>Elastin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic in nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist (tensile) forces but have more “give” when elongated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be useful in preventing injury because they allow the tissue to “bend, but not break” </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Ground Substance and Cells <ul><li>Ground substance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed primarily of glycosaminoglycans (gags), water, and solutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows body fibers to exist in a fluid-filled environment, dispersing repetitive forces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the maintenance and repair of tissues that constitute joints </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Types of Connective Tissue <ul><li>Four basic types of connective tissue form the structure of joints: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense, irregular connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articular cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  26. 26. Dense, Irregular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Binds bones together and restrains unwanted movement of joints </li></ul><ul><li>Composes ligaments and the tough external layer of joint capsules </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily type I collagen fibers, low elastin fiber content </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  27. 27. Articular Cartilage <ul><li>Resists and distributes compressive and shear forces transferred through articular surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Covers the ends of articulating bones in synovial joints </li></ul><ul><li>High type II collagen fiber content; fibers help anchor the cartilage to bone </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  28. 28. Fibrocartilage <ul><li>Provides support and stabilization to joints </li></ul><ul><li>Provides shock absorption by resisting and dispersing compressive and shear forces </li></ul><ul><li>Composes the intervertebral discs of the spine and the menisci of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>Multidirectional bundles of type I collagen </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  29. 29. Bone <ul><li>Forms primary supporting structure of the body and provides a rigid lever to transmit muscle force to move and stabilize the body </li></ul><ul><li>Forms internal levers of musculoskeletal system </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized arrangement of type I collagen providing a framework for hard mineral salts </li></ul>
  30. 30. Functional Considerations: Tendons and Ligaments <ul><li>The fibrous composition of tendons and ligaments is similar , but arrangement and functions differ significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Tendons connect muscle to bone and convert muscular force into bony motion, with parallel alignment of collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Ligaments connect bone to bone and maintain a joint’s structure, with irregular crossing patterns of collagen fibers </li></ul>
  31. 31. Functional Considerations: Active Joint Stabilization <ul><li>Bony conformation and ligamentous networks provide static stability </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles function as active stabilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles cannot respond as quickly as ligaments to external force, but allow a graded and more controlled response </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  32. 32. Immobilization and Connective Tissues <ul><li>Joint immobilization increases stiffness and decreases tissue ability to withstand forces </li></ul><ul><li>Immobilization may be necessary but makes joints susceptible to injury/instability </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation programs involve a relatively quick return to weight bearing and possibly specific strengthening exercises </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  33. 33. Summary <ul><li>Each type of joint has specific functional capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Range of motion and relative stability of a joint depend on bony structure, surrounding muscles, and connective tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-off between stability and mobility of a joint </li></ul><ul><li>Every joint in the body must find the balance between mobility and stability to function properly </li></ul>
  34. 34. Homework <ul><li>Please read Chapter 3 in textbook prior to lecture/lab on Thursday 01/26/12 </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz #2: Chapters 3 & 4 – Tuesday 01/31/12  </li></ul>