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Joints

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Joints

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Joints

  1. 1. Joints JOINT- A place where two or more bones meet.
  2. 2. 1. Fixed or Immoveable Joints The bones at an immoveable joint cannot move - they overlap or interlock, and are held together by a tough fibre, e.g. the skull. 2. Slightly Moveable Joints The bones at a slightly moveable joint can only move a little - they are held together by strong straps called ligaments and are joined by protective pads known as cartilage, e.g. the ribs. 3. Freely Moveable Joints At a freely moveable joint the bones move freely. They are also known as synovial joints, and are the largest group of joints found in the body, e.g. the hips, shoulders and knees. Types of Joints There are 3 main types of joint found in the body.
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT BY STRUCTURE Fibrous: Have no cavity and are held together by fibrous connective tissue – e.g. the sutures of the skull bones Cartilaginous: Also have no cavity. There is cartilage between the bones of the joint. May be found between the vertebrae of the spine Synovial: Has a fluid filled cavity surrounded by an articular capsule. The articulating surfaces are covered in hyaline cartilage – e.g. the hinge joint of the knee
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF JOINT BY MOVEMENT Fibrous or synarthrosis: Does not allow any movement, which makes more sense when you know where in the body they occur, as they supply protection – e.g. for the brain Cartilaginous or amphiarthrosis: Allows only limited movement Synovial or diarthrosis: Is freely moving, as much as the shape of the articulating surface will allow.
  5. 5. JOINT / MOVEMENT TYPES Joint type Shape of joint Movement range Body place : articulating bones Ball + socket ball shaped bone fits 3 axes F/E AB/AD R C hip : femur, acetabulum of pelvis into cup shaped socket shoulder : scapula, humerus Hinge convex and concave 1 axis F/E knee : femur, patella, tibia surfaces fitting together elbow : humerus, radius, ulna Pivot ring shaped surrounding 1 axis R spine / atlas : odontoid process of axis a cone (turns head from side to side) elbow : proximal ends of radius and ulna Condyloid modified ball and socket 2 axes F/E AB/AD C knuckle joints of fingers : metacarpals, giving circumduction phalanges wrist : radius, carpals Saddle shaped like a saddle 2 axes F/E AB/AD C joint at base of thumb : carpal, giving circumduction metacarpal Gliding two flat gliding surfaces a little in all directions centre of chest : clavicle, sternum wrist : carpals ankle : tarsals spine : articulating surfaces of vertebrae
  6. 6. In the picture below the ball and socket joint at the hip allows the player to get height and then the ball and socket joint at the shoulder allows him to SLAM DUNK!!
  7. 7. Hinge joint (the elbow) in use taking a set shot
  8. 8. The knee (HINGE JOINT) is used when flexing (bending) and extending (straightening) the leg to kick a football
  9. 9. Spin bowling requires a complex movement of the wrist joint – what type of joint?
  10. 10. Bowling underarm involves extension and flexion of the shoulder – what type of joint?
  11. 11. RELATIONSHIP of MUSCULAR SYSTEM to SKELETAL SYSTEM NAMES OF MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS Example : biceps ORIGIN (static end) : coracoid process / glenoid fossa tubercle of humerus INSERTION (moving end) : tuberosity of radius FASCIA connective tissue example : epimysium LIGAMENTS attach bone to bone example : knee joint cruciate ligaments TENDONS attach muscle to bone via PERIOSTEUM example : achilles tendon PERIOSTEAL LAYERS attach tendons to bone MUSCULAR ATTACHMENTS APONEUROSIS a flattened ribbon shaped tendon
  12. 12. Cartilage, Tendons, Ligaments: What’s the difference? Cartilage Tendons Ligaments Tough Attaches bone to muscle Attaches bone to bone Flexible Sturdy Elastic At end of bone Non elastic Stabilise Cushions Size changes depending on muscle Made of many fibres Anchor Strong
  13. 13. Types of Synovial Joints KEY Ball & Socket Joint Hinge Joint Pivot Joint Gliding Joint Saddle Joint Condyloid Joint Freely moveable (synovial) joints can be divided into six groups depending upon how they move.
  14. 14. Joints Synovial Joints • The articular capsule is a fibrous tissue encasing the joint, forming a capsule • The synovial membrane acts as a lining to the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid • The articular/hyaline cartilage covers the ends of the articulating bones • Synovial fluid fills the joint capsule nourishes and lubricates the articular cartilage
  15. 15. Joints Synovial Joints • Ligaments are white fibrous connective tissues joining bone to bone, making the joint more stable • Bursa is found where tendons are in contact with bone. It forms a fluid filed sac between the tendon and bone and helps reduce friction • Articular discs of cartilage act as shock absorbers • Pads of fat act as buffers to protect the bones form wear and tear
  16. 16. Synovial Joints Ligament Cartilage Ligament Synovial Fluid Pelvis Synovial Membrane Capsule Femur Hip Joint
  17. 17. Ball-and-Socket Joint • hip • shoulder Condyloid Joint • between metacarpals and phalanges 8-9
  18. 18. Gliding Joint • between carpals • between tarsals Hinge Joint • elbow • between phalanges 8-10
  19. 19. Pivot Joint • between proximal ends of radius and ulna Saddle Joint • between carpal and metacarpal of thumb 8-11
  20. 20. • ball-and-socket • head of humerus • glenoid cavity of scapula • loose joint capsule • bursae • ligaments prevent displacement • very wide range of movement 8-15 Shoulder Joint
  21. 21. • hinge joint • trochlea of humerus • trochlear notch of ulna • gliding joint • capitulum of humerus • head of radius • flexion and extension • many reinforcing ligaments • stable joint 8-17 Elbow Joint
  22. 22. • ball-and-socket joint • head of femur • acetabulum • heavy joint capsule • many reinforcing ligaments • less freedom of movement than shoulder joint 8-19 Hip Joint
  23. 23. • largest joint • most complex • medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur • medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia • femur articulates anteriorly with patella • modified hinge joint • flexion/extension/little rotation 8-21 Knee Joint • strengthened by many ligaments and tendons • menisci separate femur and tibia • bursae

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