Muscular intro


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Muscular intro

  1. 1. Muscles Bundle Pairs and Attachment to Bones <ul><li>Skeletal Muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle in Latin means “little mouse” because of the fancied resemblance of the muscle body to a mouse contracting beneath the skin </li></ul><ul><li>Attachments: </li></ul><ul><li>Tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of bundles (fascicles) of collagen fibers, mainly parallel and often large enough to see with the naked eye </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible and resists stretch; so it can turn corners </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Appear white in life because it is vascular </li></ul><ul><li>Heal very slowly: this is why damage to the large tendon in the heel, the Achilles tendon is so crippling for a sportsman (as it was, incidentally, for Achilles) </li></ul><ul><li>Take the form of cords or strips, circular in cross section, oval or flattened </li></ul><ul><li>Striated in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Around the outside is an epitendineum with elastic fibers, which obviously causes a little drag as tendons run through connective tissue </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Aponeurosis </li></ul><ul><li>A very flattened tendon </li></ul><ul><li>White like nervous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Usually has the appearance of a flattened sheet of collagen fibers, or often several sheets running on each other in different directions like plywood. </li></ul><ul><li>Fleshy </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle joined to bone without the intervention of a frank collagenous tendon or aponeurosis </li></ul><ul><li>The collagen is still there, but in amongst the muscle fibers, or forming a very short tendon </li></ul>
  4. 4. Origin, Insertion, and Belly <ul><li>Origin - attachment of the muscle tendon to the stationary bone </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion - the bone that is moved </li></ul><ul><li>Belly - fleshy portion between the origin and insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal muscles produce movement by exerting force on tendons, which then pull on bones </li></ul><ul><li>Most muscles cross a joint and attach to the articulating bone that forms a joint </li></ul><ul><li>When the muscle contracts, it pulls one of the articulating bones toward the other </li></ul><ul><li>The other muscle tendon attaches to the muscle's INSERTION </li></ul><ul><li>In limbs, the origin is usually proximal and the insertion is usually distal </li></ul><ul><li>When a muscle contracts, it pulls its insertion toward its origin </li></ul><ul><li>The belly shortens and thickens during the contraction </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Muscles according to Movement of Body Parts <ul><li>Prime Mover - Muscles that assume the major responsibility for producing a specific movement </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonists - Muscles that oppose, or reverse, a particular movement by a prime mover </li></ul><ul><li>Synergists - Muscles that reduce undesirable or unnecessary extra movements </li></ul><ul><li>that might result as the prime mover contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Fixators - Are synergists which immobilize the origin of the prime mover so that </li></ul><ul><li>the prime mover can act more efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The biceps brachii is the prime mover of elbow flexion while the triceps brachii is the antagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Quadriceps group muscle cause lower leg to extend, leg moves away from thigh </li></ul><ul><li>The deltoid muscle originates on the scapula, which is a moveable bone. The pectoralis minor, rhomboids, and trapezius muscles attach the scapula to the axial skeleton. When the deltoid contracts to abduct the arm, these other muscles hold the scapula still and therefore act as fixators </li></ul>
  7. 7. Body Parts Movement <ul><li>Muscle mechanics : </li></ul><ul><li>a. swing - tending to move the mobile bone b. shunt - compressing the joint c. spin - rotating the mobile bone </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 different types of joints in the body: </li></ul><ul><li>Freely Movable Joints (ball-and-socket, hinge, and pivot joints) which allow movement freely </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly Movable Joints (gliding joints) which allow considerable movement </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Immovable Joints (bones of the skull) which allow little or no movement at all </li></ul><ul><li>Toes, Elbows, knees and fingers- uses hinge joints (back-and-forth movements like hinges on a door). </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal vertebra- The joints between vertebrae are called gliding joints, where one part of a bone slides over another bone </li></ul>