The Jesuit Relations


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The Jesuit Relations

  1. 1. The Jesuit Relations<br />By Karee Ann Klein<br />
  2. 2. Who are the Jesuits?<br />The Jesuits are members of the society of Jesus<br />Founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534<br />They took special vows of poverty and obedience<br />What are the Jesuit Relations?<br />Annual reports of French missionaries in their efforts to convert the natives<br />Introduction<br />Ignatius of Loyola<br />
  3. 3. Jesuits “knew what they were talking about”<br />They are a primary source<br />Learned local languages<br />Lived with the people<br />Even though they disapproved of the pagan acts of the natives, they observed and recorded them accurately<br />They were literate unlike many of the fur traders that lived among the Natives, so they were able to descriptively compose letters of the acts they witnessed<br />Introduction cont.<br />
  4. 4. Paul Le Jeune<br />Wrote earliest publication of Jesuit Relations<br />Converted to Catholicism after being raised Protestant<br />Worked as an educator and administrator at various Jesuit colleges in France<br />Traveled to Canada when he was 40<br />Witnessed to the Montagnais<br />Le Jeune described the Montagnais<br /> Hunting-gathering, dispersed and nomadic people<br />Traded fur with the French<br />Practiced “Animism” as their religion<br />Nature focused<br />Animals and natural phenomena were considered spirits<br />Tried to appease these spirits so they would help them<br />Told myths to explain the world, looked to dreams<br />Consulted “jugglers”<br />People possessed by special spiritual powers <br />Paul Le Jeune<br />
  5. 5. Characteristics<br />“Tall, erect, strong, well proportioned, agile”<br />Even tempered and patient<br />Cooperated with each other well<br />Great hunters<br />Beavers and porcupines in light snow<br />Moose and caribou in deep snow<br />Strong religious beliefs<br />“Atahocam created the world and Messou restored it” (after the flood)<br />“All animals…have an elder brother, who is…the source and origins of all individuals”<br />Nipinoukhebrings spring and summer, Pipinoukhebrings winter and cold<br />Khichikouai– “spirits of light”<br />Montagnais<br />
  6. 6. Jean de Brebouf<br />Missionary that lived with the Hurons from 1626-1629 and 1634-1649<br />Established a mission<br />Martyred during the Iroquois invasion<br />Huron people<br />Most well-documented early tribe<br />Lived around present day Lake Ontario<br />Fishing was a large part of their society<br />Religion mirrored Christian myths, suggesting they had come into contact with other missionaries many years past<br />Regarded dreams and feasts as very important<br />Jean de Brebeuf<br />
  7. 7. Language<br />Words composed of mostly vowels<br />Use compound words<br />Words are universally conjugated<br />Religion<br />Believed they were descendants of Aataentisic, a woman who fell from Heaven<br />Iouskeha was her son, and he controlled their harvests<br />Had faith in dreams<br />Dreams usually related to feasts, dances, games, or mania<br />Believed animals possessed certain attributes<br />Fish had reason<br />Feasts<br />Athataion: feast of farewells<br />Enditeuhwa: thanksgiving and gratitiude<br />Atourontaochian: singing and eating<br />Awataerohi: deliverance from sickness<br />Way of Life<br />Live assembled in villages<br />Get along harmoniously<br />Hurons<br />
  8. 8. Jean Pierron<br />Arrogant tone in describing the Iroquois<br />Combatted the Indians’ sins using fear of God’s judgement<br />He threw a fit when asked to leave during one of their religious ceremonies <br />Claude Chauchetiere<br />Encouraged a group of young women to become nuns<br />Denounce marriage, live lives devoted to prayer<br />Encouraged Iroquois to practice “mortification of the flesh”<br />Self-torture that atoned for sins by mirroring the pain that martyrs and Jesus experienced<br />Worked at a mission that had a strict schedule<br />Included Mass, catechism class, and prayer<br />Used allegories to communicate to the Indians<br />Iroquois Missionaries<br />
  9. 9. Food<br />They grew Indian corn and French wheat<br />Wheat took longer and was harder on soil, but they enjoyed the bread that resulted from it<br />Men hunted meat<br />Women searched for firewood<br />Enjoyed liquor and drunkenness was common<br />Attire<br />The Indians dressed up for Sundays and feast days<br />Wear fine white shirts<br />Women dress very modestly<br />Button up the shirt which falls to their knees<br />Wear petticoats<br />Women<br />Tie their hair back with red ribbon (eel skin)<br />Grease their hair black<br />“Poorly but modestly clad”<br />Men<br />Always have hair up in “some unique way”<br />Iroquois<br />
  10. 10. Born in Orleans, France<br />Sent to New France in 1636<br />First martyr of the Jesuit martyrs of New France<br />Captured by the Mohawk raiding party in 1642<br />Held in captivity for many months<br />Tortured<br />Escaped to a Dutch settlement<br />Returned as a diplomat after the war between the French and Iroquois ended<br />He was accused of sorcery and was killed on the spot <br />His story is narrated by Father Jerome Lalemant after his death<br />Isaac Jogues<br />Isaac Jogues<br />
  11. 11. Massacred Indians allied to the French<br />Torture techniques<br />Beat with clubs<br />Tore out fingernails with their teeth<br />Crushed the bleeding fingers after<br />Pierced through hands with a knife<br />Used sticks and thorns<br />Prisoner conditions<br />Took away all clothes and left them naked<br />Wounds became worm infested with no bandages or dressings<br />Hurled insults and beat continually<br />Forced to carry Indians’ supplies when traveling<br />Ate what they could gather along the way<br />Wild fruits <br />Used their blood as sacrifices<br />Would not allow them to die<br />“Cruel compassion”<br />Mohawks<br />