The jesuit relations

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The jesuit relations

  1. 1. The Jesuit Relations By: Josh Kessner History 140 Professor Arguello
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Jesuits followed the conquistadors of Portugal, Spain, and France into the new world, attempting to turn pagan savages into Catholic Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>These missionaries were of the Society of Jesus and thought that any religion outside of their own was lesser and not the right way </li></ul><ul><li>In 1534, The Society of Jesus was founded by Spanish ex-soldier Ignatius of Loyola </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits taught their followers multiple aspects of education, literature, and some scientific studies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The goal of the Jesuit missionaries was to convert the native Indians into Catholicism so that they could be better dependable and relate with the colonists </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits would go out of their way to study the culture of the natives and understand the reason behind the way they do things </li></ul><ul><li>In studying the native Indians, the Jesuits would even learn their language to try and win over some respect from the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>In understanding their way of life, speaking their language, and meticulously recording their cultural history, many of the Indians were amazed to see such focus upon them by the Jesuits </li></ul>
  4. 4. Disease and Medicine <ul><li>As the Europeans continued to come into the New World, they brought along many diseases </li></ul><ul><li>some of the diseases that they carried with them were Smallpox, influenza, and measles </li></ul><ul><li>These diseases were recorded to have wiped out at least half of the Indian population </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits’ view on disease though was why it was caused by their god </li></ul><ul><li>They put their focus on baptizing the dying rather than curing the diseased living </li></ul>
  5. 5. Disease and Medicine <ul><li>The natives had a different view upon the ill than the Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits didn’t approve of the Native medicine </li></ul><ul><li>The natives believed the illnesses to be caused by both Natural and Supernatural causes </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that the medical procedures needed to ass the mind and body spiritually </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits were shocked by the rituals and behaviors of the Natives way to help the sick </li></ul><ul><li>Also the natives believed that dances and games would help cure the ill </li></ul><ul><li>While the Jesuits believed that once ill , one should be isolated from daily activity </li></ul>
  6. 6. Missions to the Iroquois <ul><li>One of the greatest missions of the Jesuits into the New World was to convert the natives into Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>After a lasting peace was finally established in 1667, Jesuits were finally able to be successful in working with the natives </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits worked among the Five Nations Iroquois until 1684 </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these newly converted Indians had migrated north to the St. Lawrence River </li></ul>
  7. 7. Missions to the Iroquois <ul><li>Although some of the Iroquois Indians had accepted the teachings of the Jesuits, they still believed and wanted to preserve their own religious backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits had difficulty in having the Iroquois follow faithfully in their religions </li></ul><ul><li>Overtime, some of them did convert and moved up towards the Northern colonies, where they assumed that more Indians would later convert and gather </li></ul><ul><li>The French called this area Sault St. Louis </li></ul>
  8. 8. Writings on the Natural Environment <ul><li>The Indians viewed natural phenomena in both a spiritual way, as well as a physical </li></ul><ul><li>They would tell stories about thunder, lightning, eclipses, as well as other phenomena with creatures that were animal and human </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans questioned the world around them as well, although they kept separate the idea of a religious reason and a physical reason </li></ul>
  9. 9. Writings on the Natural Environment <ul><li>Once arriving to the New world, it was evident how full of life the land was </li></ul><ul><li>The people discovered rivers full of fish and other aqua life that would yield beneficial to the survival of man </li></ul><ul><li>There were oils that could be brought out of the animals and plantation </li></ul><ul><li>Also, there was an incredible amount of timber to use for households </li></ul><ul><li>New plants that were never before discovered were cultivated and used for medicines amongst other things </li></ul><ul><li>The North American environment was rich in useful substance </li></ul>
  10. 10. Martyrs and Mystics <ul><li>When Jesuits were first arriving and planned to visit the Iroquois in hopes of converting them to Catholicism, they weren’t prepared for what was to happen </li></ul><ul><li>The Iroquois were experienced in torturing their enemies and would take torture to extreme measures </li></ul><ul><li>For example they would bite off the fingernails of the Jesuits and run knives through their hands </li></ul><ul><li>Also, they would cut open their elbows and shove sticks up the gash </li></ul><ul><li>Another type of torture often practiced was the cutting off of thumbs and fingers </li></ul>
  11. 11. Martyrs and Mystics <ul><li>Catherine Tegahkouita also known as Kateri was the ideal Jesuit follower </li></ul><ul><li>She had an Iroquois Father and a Christian Algonquin mother </li></ul><ul><li>The parents disapproved of her devotion to the religion </li></ul><ul><li>Kateri remained a virgin throughout her entire life and protested the idea of marriage </li></ul><ul><li>She escaped from her family because they tried to use ploys to shake her of her religion and faith </li></ul><ul><li>She spent the rest of her life at a mission after leaving her family </li></ul>

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