• The Algonquians spoke many different languages but was not similar to the Iroquoians.• The Iroquoians focused on crop growing and practiced a way of living that allowed them to live in year-round places.• This book focused on four nations being: The Montagnais and Algonquins and the Hurons and Iroquois.• The Jesuits managed to convert a large quantity of Mohawks and some of Iroquois peoples to Catholicism.• New France showed a planned out threat to the Mohawks and as the French made an alliance with their long time enemies, the Algonquins, the Mohawks became extremely hostile.
• Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec in 1608 but the Jesuits returned in 1625, they deemed Quebec their headquarters.• The missionary enterprises were affected by the relations between the Indians and the French• The French respected the Indians culture and interacted extensively with the natives.• The French were able to build their empire in their settlement of Canada but did not require and capture of the Indian lands.
• The first published Jesuit Relations was written by Father Paul Le Jeune (1592-1664)• The Montagnais were hunter-gathers• The weather determined what they would be eating because in the summer, they gathered berries and fished in the St. Lawrence River while in the Autumn, they moved more inland to hunt moose and other larger animals for fur and meat.• They also hunted beavers so they could trade them to the French• The Montagnais-Algonquins were very spiritual people and believed that every living thing possessed its own spirit and personality towards the people. This religion was classified as “animism”
• Indians believed that a being named Atahocam created the world and that one named Messou restored it. They are referring to when the world was flooded in the times of Noah and who they believe was called Messou as the person who restored the world.• They Indians stood by the belief to never become angry because they wish only contentment and happiness.• They believed that days without food strengthened the soul and that it was foolish to become angry or irritated for unwanted weather conditions.
• From 1634-1649 , the Jesuits mainly focused on converting the Hurons.• The natives didn’t have words for religion, learning or government in their language which made teaching about these subjects very difficult.• The natives had faith in dreams which they believed held the key to the future of their people. They did know of a similar tale to that of Adam and Eve but held a different twist altogether focusing more on nature needs rather than urges.• The Hurons had their own sense of order to keep stability and the tribe knew the way their government was supposed to be maintained.
• The Hurons believed that fish did not like death and that if they feed their animal bones to their dogs then they would not be prosperous for food and tended to burn the bones.• Every twelve years they carried the Feast of the dead. It gave the Jesuits hope because it showed them the natives recognized the immortality of the soul. The Feast of the dead was a massive burial of the deceased villagers from the entire area of Huronia.• There were four other feasts the Hurons demonstrated. The Feast of farewells, The feast of Thanksgiving, A Feast for singing and eating as well as a feast for the deliverance of a sick person.
• The natives were exposed to many different diseases when the Europeans were introduced.• The natives believed that many illness were the cause of a demon possessing the body and that there were many dances that hade healing properties to cure them.• They believed the illnesses came from supernatural intervention as well as physical problems concentrating on the body, mind and soul• The Jesuits were unconcerned about the medical problems because they were unequipped to handle it but more so focused on getting the ill baptized.
• In 1637 the Hurons were struck with the Influenza epidemic. The flu was a devastation to the Hurons and they suspected that the French were the reason they conquered the illness. They wondered what the French God could want to receive in order to end the plaque.• In 1639, the Hurrons were plagued with smallpox and the amount killed from the epidemic was astounding.• The Hurrons ultimately blamed the Jesuits for all of there misfortune with disease and planned to capture and kill all the missionaries.
• In the seventeenth century, war, raids, ambushes, and torture was very common as means of battle.• In 1649 the Iroguois changed their attacks further west which caught the Hurrons off guard.• The won their next attack in the town of St. Louis after a long battle by the villagers.• The Iroquois killed most captives by burning them, yet the ones who were not killed which were mostly women were taken captive and adopted as Iroquois.
• Some of the Mohawks that were seeking security joined forces with the English while others went to the French.• The Jesuits tended to think that the move to the French meant that they were wanting more religious idealism and submission to the French, yet it was more of distain of the English then of acceptance of Christianity• In 1649, The Huron nations collapsed. The remaining members of the tribe surrendered to the enemy and became adopted Iroquois. One small band of Catholic Hurons followed the Jesuits into Quebec City.