Jesuit relations


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Jesuit relations

  1. 1. Natives & Missionaries in Seventeenth-Century North America Alexis Gibson
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Jesuits were members of a religious order called “The Society of Jesus.” </li></ul><ul><li>Their main goal was to practice Christianity in an organized society while also spreading the gospel through the methods of evangelists. </li></ul><ul><li>They took vows to dedicate themselves to being obedient and living their lives through god. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction Continued (Jesuit Activities) <ul><li>The Jesuits participated in many activities which included education, literary and scientific activities, pastoral care, and overseas missions. </li></ul><ul><li>Education was taken very seriously, every Jesuit was a college teacher at some point </li></ul><ul><li>They were occasionally involved in French explorations. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of their journeys were documented in this book </li></ul>
  4. 4. Paul Le Jeune & the Montagnais <ul><li>Most of the earliest publications were documented by Paul Le Jeune. </li></ul><ul><li>The Montagnais lifestyle revolved around hunting and gathering. </li></ul><ul><li>They lived in unappealing places such as the wetlands, around rocky hills, rivers and lakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Traded with the French </li></ul><ul><li>Father Paul Le Jeune traveled with them in order to learn more about their customs and try to teach them about the gospel. </li></ul><ul><li>His journey was very difficult. He soon learned the hardships of these people. He had to undergo starvation and uncomfortable climate conditions. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Beliefs of the Montagnais <ul><li>Practiced a religion some refer to as “animism.” They believed that animals along with natural phenomena had personalities and spirits that could help or harm them. </li></ul><ul><li>They also looked into their dreams for insight. </li></ul><ul><li>Their ideas of the creation of the earth are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>*A certain being named Atahocam created the world. </li></ul><ul><li>*Messou restored it after the great flood. (In correlation to Christian belief of Noah’s arch) </li></ul><ul><li>The story of Messou: A lake overflowed that covered the earth and swallowed the world. Messou sent a raven to look for any piece of remaining land so that he could rebuild the earth. He was unable to find any and tried other ways. Finally he sent a muskrat which brought back a little Morsel which he used to rebuild the earth. Messou repopulated the world with this muskrat. </li></ul><ul><li>Another belief the Montagnais had was the absence of anger. Anger causes bitterness a feeling that the Indians liked to do without. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Huron <ul><li>Their language consisted of mostly vowels </li></ul><ul><li>The way they conjugated words made it very difficult to teach them prayers and other things. </li></ul><ul><li>They once knew of god but gave up the thought of him. Just as the Apostle Paul writes in the bible about once knowing and then disbelieving. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of their stories related somewhat to those of Christianity such as the story of Adam and eve and of the murder of Abel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Huron also looked upon their dreams for inspiration to do certain things. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Huron Law & Government <ul><li>They lived in villages with many cabins </li></ul><ul><li>Looked to the field for their food </li></ul><ul><li>Visited neighbors often. If one were to fall ill it would be a competition for the neighbors to prove who could provide for them the most. </li></ul><ul><li>There were daily councils held in the villages where people could address certain issues freely. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of their few laws included the punishment of murderers, thieves, traitors, and witches. </li></ul><ul><li>They never participated in war unless they had a very substantial reason. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Disease & Medicine <ul><li>Europeans had immunity to most life threatening diseases, where as the Indians did not. </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits beliefs : </li></ul><ul><li>When someone fell ill the Jesuits focused more on the idea of god’s will and why their life may be taken instead of how they developed a certain disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in prayer over medicine </li></ul><ul><li>When someone was sick they were kept in isolation. Only visited by family and close friends. </li></ul><ul><li>Natives beliefs : </li></ul><ul><li>Did many medical procedures </li></ul><ul><li>When someone was sick they were kept in the middle of a busy environment. Healing took the efforts of the whole community. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Francois Le Mercier & The Influenza Epidemic Of 1637 <ul><li>Many people suffered from the Influenza sickness. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jesuits would bleed the ill to try and get rid of the illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Tonneraovanont was a famous sorcerer. </li></ul><ul><li>He came to visit the sick French people in hopes to restore their health in reward for other things. </li></ul><ul><li>He made a speech telling them that he could heal them in just a few days. </li></ul><ul><li>The father superior told him that his practices were unholy but instead asked him to teach them some natural remedies. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Diplomacy & War (Peace) <ul><li>The main conflicts were between the Hurons, Algonquins, Montagnais, and the French. </li></ul><ul><li>An Indian named Kiotseaeton risked his life in order to establish peace within these countries. He traveled to three rivers to negotiate and better understand the others. </li></ul><ul><li>14 gifts were given by the governor to the Iroquois </li></ul><ul><li>Peace was established and concluded. </li></ul>
  11. 11. War <ul><li>War resumed in 1647. </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict began with a Huron missionary. </li></ul><ul><li>He was accused of killing several emissaries and a Jesuit with the use of evil magic. </li></ul>