The Jesuit Relations


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The Jesuit Relations

  1. 1. The Jesuit Relations By DJ Heston
  2. 2.  The Jesuits were literate and masters of the written word. Jesuits were members of a religious order known as the Society of Jesus and was founded by a Spanish ex-soldier Ignatius of Loyola in 1534. Every Jesuit was a college teacher at some point in his career. One of Loyola’s first disciples, priest Francis Introduction Xavier, baptized thousands of converts in India, Japan, and China. In two centuries, Jesuits dealt with almost every Indian nation of the Northeast America. French fisherman, explorers, and fur traders had established relations with the natives of the Northeast long before the Jesuits.
  3. 3.  Jesuit missionaries had to work with the natives instead of dominate them. The natives welcomed the Jesuits because they valued the French as supplies of goods and allies in the war against the Iroquois. Many Algonquins, Montagnais, and Hurons converted to Christianity after suffering blows from disease, Iroquois attacks and economic dependency. During their eventful years of Canadian Introduction missions the Jesuits published annual Relations. European writing of the New World are divided into two genres: the travel narrative and the ethnographic description. The Jesuits never admit to compromising their European principles, but there is evidence of soul-searching and shifting points of view.
  4. 4.  Father Paul Le Jeune was the first superior of the New France mission and his works were the first published of Jesuit Relations. Father Le Jeune followed a band of Montagnais hunting from the fall of 1633 to the spring of 1634. Montagnais They camped in twenty-three different Hunters of the places during the hunt; but always in the snow. Northern The Europeans lust for beaver pelts Woodlands provides the Indians with kettles, hatchets, swords, knives, and bread. Father Le Jeune observed their rituals which included a shaman inside a tent chanting different dialects.
  5. 5.  Father Le Jeune appreciated the Indians physical features: tall, erect, strong, and agile. He compared the Indians to European peasants but admitted that the Indians were more clever than ordinary peasants. Montagnais The Indians displayed much more Hunters of the patience than Europeans and rarely expressed anger. Northern Indian men and women cooperate Woodlands admirably and the men allow the women to handle the household arrangements without interfering. The French believed in punishing children for wrongdoing while the Indians did not.
  6. 6.  In contrast to the Europeans who kept their sick isolated, the Hurons kept their sick in the midst of the busy longhouse environment. Some of Indians believed games such as lacrosse was a cooling remedy to cure the sick. Others believed a gambling game called dish helped the ill, sometimes gambling away Disease and everything they had in the process. When Jesuit Jean de Brebeuf fell ill, the Medicine Indians wondered at the orderly way they cared for their sick and the regimen they put them on. Some Indians asked to be baptized when they were ill only to revert back to their old customs and superstitions when they recovered.
  7. 7.  With disease ravaging the Hurons, an Algonquin captain told the Indians the French were to blame not the Devil. When smallpox struck in 1640, the Hurons believed the Jesuits were the greatest sorcerers on earth. The Jesuits spent days with Indians struck by Disease and smallpox, which lead the Hurons to believe death and disease followed the missionaries. Medicine The Jesuits were most welcome and baptized the greatest number of people where the greatest number died. Sometimes conflicts ensued between the Jesuits and Indians regarding proper treatment of the ill.
  8. 8.  A Mohawk emissary named Kiotseaton, brought with him two prisoners to Three Rivers. Kiotseaton was treated well by the Algonquins and Montagnais; treatment he would not receive in his own country. He presented seventeen gifts and danced and Diplomacy rejoiced with the other Indians. After being presented with fourteen gifts by and War Monsieur the governor, Kiotseaeton returned home with good will. The truce was not to last and as Jerome Lalemant noted, “There are no hunters so eager for game as the Indians are when hunting men.”
  9. 9.  In 1649 the Iroquois shifted their attacks further west which surprised and overwhelmed the Hurons. The Iroquois easily conquered the town of St. Ignace which had been abandoned by the majority of its people at the beginning of winter. They prevailed in their next attack in the town Diplomacy of St. Louis after a courageous battle by the and War villagers. The Iroquois bound and burned many of captives. Those who were not killed, mostly women, were taken captive and became adopted Iroquois.
  10. 10.  The Iroquois had a treaty with the French which allowed the Jesuits onto their land. Fathers Fremin, Pierron, and Bruyas set out in 1667 to reestablish the missions in the Iroquois land that had been interrupted by the wars. The Iroquois feared a French invasion with the Missions to the arrival of a large French military force in Canada. Iroquois One of the major obstacles of the establishment of faith to the Iroquois was drunkenness. Father Jean Pierron had threatened a return to Quebec which might lead to an armed invasion of the Iroquois which unnerved them.
  11. 11.  Some of the Mohawks sought security by linking with the English while others opted for the French. The Mohawks and Iroquois probably migrated to French settlements more out of distain of the English ideals than out of acceptance of Christianity. Missions to the The Jesuits tended to interpret the move as an Iroquois expression of religious idealism and submission to the French. Some of the young Indian women who accepted Christianity renounced marriage and devoted themselves to a life of charity, prayer, and “mortification of the flesh”