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Powerpoint Lecture 1 - Communication and Culture

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This is the first powerpoint lecture covering the content from Chapters 1 AND 3 in Real Communication.

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Powerpoint Lecture 1 - Communication and Culture

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Communication: Essential Human Behavior Real Communication, Second Edition by Dan O’Hair and Mary Wiemann
  2. 2. Why Study Communication?  Formal study can − Improve our skills − Help us make sense of what happens in our lives − Increase our personal impact − Enhance our relationships with others
  3. 3. Communication Enables Us to…
  4. 4. Express Affiliation  Affiliation is the affect, or feelings, you have for others; emotion.  It can be expressed in many ways; both verbal and non verbal
  5. 5. Achieve Goals  We need communication to accomplish particular objectives  Goal or task oriented communication can be both direct and indirect
  6. 6. Influence Others  Control; ability of one person, group, or organization to influence others.
  7. 7. Describing Communication  Communication is the process by which individuals use symbols, signs, and behaviors to exchange information.
  8. 8. Characteristics of Communication  Symbolic −Symbols are arbitrary constructions that refer to people, things, and concepts −Symbols stand for things, but they are not the “thing.” There is no relationship between symbols and the “thing” they stand for.
  9. 9. Symbols Tree
  10. 10. Features (cont’d) Meaning −the significance we bestow on phenomena—what they signify to us −We negotiate the meaning of symbols with others through communication
  11. 11. Characteristics of Communication  Requires a shared code − A code is a set of symbols joined together to create meaning −Involves encoding and decoding
  12. 12. Characteristics of Communication Need not be intentional −Giving information vs. giving off information
  13. 13. Characteristics of Communication  Occurs through various channels −A channel is a method through which communication occurs
  14. 14. Modeling Communication http://youtu.be/Btj94IHVc6I?t=22s
  15. 15. Components of Communication (cont’d)  Feedback is the verbal or nonverbal response to communication. +/-  The Channel is the medium by which the message travels; “the medium is the message”  Context or a specific environment that involves several situational factors; Culture − People simultaneously send and receive messages − Changes over time − Occurs within systems
  16. 16. Components of Communication (cont’d)  Noise is any interference that occurs as we communicate. Internal or External.
  17. 17. Chapter 3 Communication and Culture Real Communication, Second Edition by Dan O’Hair and Mary Wiemann
  18. 18. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Culture Described Culture is a… learned system of thought and behavior that belongs to and typifies a relatively large group of people; it is the composite of their shared beliefs, values, and practices.
  22. 22. How do we learn culture?  listening and observing others' communication  worldview—the framework through which we interpret the world Learn Culture through communication Express Culture through communication
  23. 23. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Intercultural Communication Communication between people from different cultures who have different worldviews. Why does it matter?
  24. 24. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Intercultural Communication We live in a diverse society. The world is mobile. Computer mediated communication Global market place
  25. 25. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Cultural Variation 1. High Context vs. Low-Context 2. Collectivist vs. Individualist 3. Uncertainty Tolerance 4. Masculine vs. Feminine 5. Power Distance 6. Time Orientation 7. Emotional Expression
  26. 26. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. High-Context vs Low-Context  High-context cultures use contextual cues (such as time, place, relationship, and situation) to interpret meaning and send subtle messages.  Low-context cultures use very direct language and rely less on situational factors to communicate.
  27. 27. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Collectivist vs Individualist  Collectivists tend to perceive themselves as members of larger groups first and communicate from that perspective.  People from individualist cultures value individuality, autonomy, and privacy.
  29. 29. Power Distances Way in which a culture accepts and expects the division of power among individuals
  30. 30. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Copyright ©2012, 2009, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. Masculine vs Feminine  Masculine cultures place value on assertiveness, achievement, ambition, and competitiveness.  Feminine cultures place value on nurturance, relationships, and quality of life
  33. 33. Comfort with uncertainty  Cultures differ in the degree of anxiety that members feel about the unknown. The ability to adapt behaviors in order to reduce uncertainty and risk, is referred to as uncertainty avoidance.
  34. 34. Time Orientation The way that cultures communicate with and about time  Monochronic cultures treat time as a limited resource that can be saved or wasted.  Polychronic cultures are less concerned with making every moment count and time is a much more fluid concept.
  35. 35. Value of Emotional Expression Hyperbole, vivid language with great emotional intensity, is often used by collectivist cultures. Individualist cultures tend to use more understatement, language that downplays the emotional intensity or importance of events.
  36. 36. What Co-Cultures do you belong to?  Groupings with unique characteristics; race, sex, gender religion, common interests, activities.  Generational cultures
  37. 37. Barriers to Competent Intercultural Communication Anxiety Ethnocentrism Discrimination Combat with… Intercultural sensitivity Intergroup contact Accommodation

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