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Individualism and Collectivism*<br />Lecture 1<br />ANTH 104<br />*Sometimes called “Communitarianism”<br />
Defining Culture…from DonalCarbaugh<br />A system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, prem...
Contrasting ValuesOsterman, Coon & Kemmelmeier (2002)<br />Individualism<br />Independent<br />Goals<br />Compete<br />Uni...
Individualistic Patterns<br />	Children raised in individualistic cultures are rewarded for initiative, personal achieveme...
Collectivist Patterns<br />Children are taught that they are a part of a circle of relations. <br />This identity as a mem...
Individualistic Countries<br />Most Individualistic<br />U.S.<br />Australia<br />Great Britain<br />Canada<br />Netherlan...
Who am I? Ask yourself which is most in the foreground in your life…<br />The welfare, development, security, prosperity, ...
Wait a minute!<br />Can aspects of both cultural dynamics be important to people?<br />Sure! And that’s one of the many th...
Money and Happiness<br />Wealthier countries are more individualistic, probably because there is less need to be reliant o...
Key Dimensions on Which Cultures DifferSmith and Schwartz 1997<br />Autonomy versus Embeddedness<br />How to motivate resp...
Cultural GridSmith and Schwartz<br />Combinatorial Culture Types<br />By Country, not Individual People<br />Smith and Sch...
Some Final Thoughts<br />There is no one-size-fits-all with Individualism and Collectivism.<br />Korean collectivism is di...
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Individualism And Collectivism

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Individualism And Collectivism

  1. 1. Individualism and Collectivism*<br />Lecture 1<br />ANTH 104<br />*Sometimes called “Communitarianism”<br />
  2. 2. Defining Culture…from DonalCarbaugh<br />A system of expressive practices fraught with feelings, a system of symbols, premises, rules, forms, and the domains and dimensions of mutual meanings associated with these.<br />
  3. 3. Contrasting ValuesOsterman, Coon & Kemmelmeier (2002)<br />Individualism<br />Independent<br />Goals<br />Compete<br />Unique<br />Private self-knowledge<br />Direct communication<br />Collectivism<br />Related<br />Belong<br />Duty<br />Harmony<br />Advice<br />Context<br />Hierarchy<br />Group<br />
  4. 4. Individualistic Patterns<br /> Children raised in individualistic cultures are rewarded for initiative, personal achievement, and individual leadership. <br />
  5. 5. Collectivist Patterns<br />Children are taught that they are a part of a circle of relations. <br />This identity as a member of a group comes first, summed up in the South African idea of ubuntu: “I am because we are.”<br />
  6. 6. Individualistic Countries<br />Most Individualistic<br />U.S.<br />Australia<br />Great Britain<br />Canada<br />Netherlands<br />Least Individualistic<br />(Most collective)<br />Guatemala<br />Ecuador<br />Panama<br />Venezuela<br />Indonesia<br />South Korea<br />Taiwan<br />
  7. 7. Who am I? Ask yourself which is most in the foreground in your life…<br />The welfare, development, security, prosperity, and well-being of yourself and others as individuals?<br />The shared heritage, ecological resources, traditional stories, and group accomplishments of your people?<br />
  8. 8. Wait a minute!<br />Can aspects of both cultural dynamics be important to people?<br />Sure! And that’s one of the many things you’re going to discuss with your group-mates next class session! <br />
  9. 9. Money and Happiness<br />Wealthier countries are more individualistic, probably because there is less need to be reliant on other people.<br />In individualistic countries, life satisfaction depends upon personal feelings and experiences. (In collective cultures, the broader social context and cultural norms influence life satisfaction.)<br />
  10. 10. Key Dimensions on Which Cultures DifferSmith and Schwartz 1997<br />Autonomy versus Embeddedness<br />How to motivate responsible behavior<br />
  11. 11. Cultural GridSmith and Schwartz<br />Combinatorial Culture Types<br />By Country, not Individual People<br />Smith and Schwartz (1997)<br /> <br /> <br />HierarchyEquality<br /> Particularism Universalism<br />Central and Eastern Europe— Northern and Western Europe, IndividualismRussia, Czech Republic, Australia, New Zealand, the U.S.<br />Romania<br /> <br /> Vertical CollectivismHorizontal Collectivism<br />Pacific Asian countries-- Southern European countries—<br />CollectivismIndonesia, South Korea, Japan Greece, Turkey, Spain<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  12. 12. Some Final Thoughts<br />There is no one-size-fits-all with Individualism and Collectivism.<br />Korean collectivism is different from Japanese collectivism.<br />French individualism is different from American individualism.<br />Not all experts agree on the definitions I’ve presented here; all concepts need refinement.<br />Individuals within a culture are not “imprisoned” by the general characteristics of their cultures.<br />

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