Psikologi KomunikasiTentative topics : Introducing Communication Persepsi dalam komunikasi Komunikasi verbal Komunikasi nonverbal Mendengarkan (listening) Komunikasi interpersonal Komunikasi dalam konteks organisasi Komunikasi massa
Recommended read Knapp, M. L. & Hall, J. A. (2010). Nonverbal communication in human interaction (7th ed). Boston: Wadsworth. Kuswarno, E. dkk. (2010). Komunikasi kontekstual: Teori dan praktik komunikasi kontemporer. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya. Morreale, S. P., Spitzberg, B. H. & Barge, J. K. (2007). Human communication: Motivation, knowledge, and skills. Belmont: Thomson Higher Education. Rakhmat, J. (2004). Psikologi komunikasi. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya. Severin, W. J. & Tankard, Jr. W. T. (1992). Communication theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media (3rd ed). New York: Longman. Tubbs, S. L. & Moss, S. (2003). Human communication: Principles and contexts. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Struktur evaluasiUTS = 30 %Tugas individu = 20 %Tugas kelompok = 30 %Aktifitas di kelas = 20 %
No plagiat No cheat 80 % kehadiran (max. 3 x tidak hadir tatap muka) HP dan/ gadget lainnya di-non-aktif- kan atau silent Datang tepat waktu (…)
Dilihat dari sejarah perkembangannya, komunikasi dibesarkan oleh para peneliti psikologi. Banyak sekali definisi komunikasi. Dance (1970) menghimpun tidak kurang dari 98 definisi komunikasi. Menurut kamus psikologi (Rakhmat, 2004) : Dictionary of Behavioral Science, menyebutkan 6 pengertian komunikasi :1. Penyampaian perubahan energi dari satu tempat yang lain, seperti dalam sistem saraf, atau penyampaian gelombang – gelombang suara.2. Penyampaian atau penerimaan signal atau pesan oleh organisme.3. Pesan yang disampaikan4. Teori komunikasi: Proses yang dilakukan satu sistem untuk mempengaruhi sistem yang lain melalui pengaturan signal – signal yang disampaikan5. K. Lewin: Pengaruh satu wilayah personal pada wilayah personal yang lain sehingga perubahan dalam satu wilayah menimbulkan perubahan pada wilayah lain.6. Pesan pasien kepada pemberi terapi dalam psikoterapi.
Some definitions are long and complex, whereas others are brief and simple. Communication refers to the process of human beings responding to the symbolic behavior of other persons (Adler & Rodman, 2006). Payne (2001) Communication is the negotiation of a shared meaning. Tubbs dan Moss (2003) Communication is the process of creating a meaning between two or more people. Communication is the process of managing messages and media for the purpose of creating meaning (Frey, Botan, & Kreps, 2000).
Messages are the words, sounds, actions, and gestures that people express to one another when they interact. Messages may be expressed verbally in words or nonverbally in sounds, actions, and gestures. Messages may be symbolic. A symbol is a word, sound, action, or gesture that refers to something else. Language is a verbal symbol system that allows us to take messages and utterances, in the form of words, and translate them into meaning. Nonverbal symbols are those sounds, actions, or gestures that people agree have a common meaning. Example :
Media adalah sarana agar simbol dapat tersampaikan dan makna terwakili. Our everyday speaking and listening occur through the use of our own voice, gestures, and body to communicate through natural media. Pens and papers were early media for writing,.Telephones transfer voice, sms, and images (through videophones), internet, e-mail, etc. The options for communicating through technological media have vastly expanded in the past century.
Meaning Meaning berarti interpretasi orang atas suatu pesan dan bagaimana pesan itu dipahami. Meaning for words and events may be personal and unique depend on your own personal history, your culture, your political and religious beliefs or it may be shared with others. Virus : If you are a doctor, the term virus refers to an infectious agent that invades and takes over human cells. But if you are a computer programmer, virus refers to a rogue computer program that corrupts your files or does other damage. Matang : bagi ilmuwan psikologi bermakna perubahan/penuaan fisik disertai dengan bertambahnya pengetahuan dan pengalaman pada seseorang. Akan tetapi, bagi tukang kebun bermakna buah yang sudah tua dan sudah sampai waktunya untuk dipetik, dimakan, dsb.
Managing Managing typically refers to the handling or supervising of people or some process or material. In communication, we manage the process of creating, receiving, and responding to verbal and nonverbal messages and media.Contoh : Ketika secara tidak sengaja bertemu teman lama di jalan. Kita akan memilih/mengelola perilaku tertentu baik verbal maupun nonverbal, seperti menjabat tangan, kemudian memeluk dan bertanya ―apa kabar bro?, lama tidak bertemu‖ dan lain – lain.
Communication as Information Transfer/linear model of communicationA source, or sender, is the original producer of the message and in humancommunication is a person. The channel is the medium through which a message issent. The receiver of the message is the person or group of people who is the ultimateaudience for the message. The source encodes a message, or puts a thought intowords, and transmits it through a channel, or a medium through which the messagetravels to a receiver. The receiver then decodes, or assigns meaning to, the message.These messages may be interrupted, intercepted, or altered by noise, which is any typeof interference that distracts us from the communication.
Communication as Sharing Meaning The interactive model of communicationThe interactive model views communication as sharing meaning and adds afeedback loop that links the receiver to the source. An interactive model ofcommunication emphasizes two-way communication betweencommunicators.
o The transactional model of communicationThe transactional model maintains that people are simultaneously senders and receiversof messages. The transactional model of communication differs from the interactivemodel because it views the source and receiver as engaging in encoding and decodingsimultaneously. Furthermore, it accounts for personal fields of meaning.
Communication as Persuasion Persuasion is the use of communication to reinforce, change, or modify an audience’s attitudes, values, beliefs, or actions. When trying to persuade others, you might typically ask yourself questions such as these: Who am I attempting to persuade? Who is the target of my persuasive attempt? What are the target person’s key attitudes, values, and beliefs? What kinds of arguments can I use to persuade the target person? How do these arguments fit the target person’s key attitudes, values, and beliefs? What kinds of appeals or arguments would most successfully persuade my target? How will the target of my persuasion need to act for me to know I have succeeded? Communication is successful to the degree to which you are able to get other people to do what you want. Successful communication is measured by your ability to persuade others and move them in the direction you choose.
Communication as CommunityUnderstanding the idea of community is challenging because people may belongto multiplecommunities simultaneously, and the way we communicate can createdifferent types of community.
All four models of communication—information transfer, sharing meaning, persuasion, and community—are useful when deciding how to communicate in different situations. The information transfer model is useful in mass communication or when giving instructions to a large group of people. Communication as shared meaning may help a work team adopt the organization’s vision. If a salesperson needs to fulfill a quota to keep his or her job, communication as persuasion may best accomplish the task. Communication as community is about coordinating our actions with others to bring about desirable goals. However, each model provides only partial insight into the communication process because it allows us to focus on only what it highlights as important.