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AIMS and PURPOSES
JOEY R. MIÑANO
Educational Aims Performs 3 Important
1. Give direction to the educative process.
• before one makes a change in the curriculum or
plans a new school building or adds new personnel
to the staff, he must ask what his objectives are. It
is worthwhile to be conscious of what direction,
custom and tradition are carrying the educative
2. Aims not only should give direction to
education but should motivate it as
• Aims are values, and if they are valued,
if they are wanted, they should induce
the learner to release the energies
necessary to accomplish them.
3. Aims have the function of providing a
criterion for evaluating the
• Whether one is examining students or
accrediting high schools and colleges,
he must have reference to initial
HOW AIMS FUNCTION
Act purposely, to consider future
events in the light of the past, all one
• to distinguish aims or objectives from
outcomes or results. The former are a
matter of foresight, while the latter are the
matter of hindsight. The former are what
one tries to learn or teach; while the latter
what actually succeeds in learning or
Reshaped to meet the
needs of a dynamic
• that educational aims
should emerge from
experience. It is not only
purposeful but personal.
Serve the educative process
• that education must be a judicious
mixture of a participation in present life
and preparation for subsequent events.
• education should properly put more
stress on preparation for adulthood
than on a present interests of
• education and college should aim at
life, life here and now, emerges from
the past and imperceptibly merges with
The PROXIMATE AIMS OF EDUCATION
Aims must be tailor-made for the
• aims arise out of concrete situations in
which the people are involved.
Enumeration of Educational Values
should be fairly complete and
Various Values Consisting the Ultimate
Aim of Education
1. The Ultimate quest for perfection
Literally the last and final end of education
…Religious view of the world: to teach the child
how to act, and has the lives of Jesus and the
saints to instate, this would be the concrete
embodiment of the aim.
Bible: “Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which
is in heaven is perfect”
2. Self-Realization: a more definite
character by declaring that the
chief and ultimate end of education
is the Cultivation of Intellect, this
should not be confused with Selfexpression.
Man lives among his fellows: it is a matter
of balanced participation in the institution
of the society.
Human nature should examine, see what
is its potentialities, and then set up an
Educational program which aims to
actualize or realize them.
Rousseau’s Idea: education should
aim to perfect the individual in all
his powers “the object of education
is not to make a soldier, magistrate,
or priest, but to make an educated
…formal discipline of the mind –
intellectual excellence does not
so much consists in the pursuit
of knowledge on its own
3. Ultimate growth: the ultimate aim of education is
not just physically but in greater insight into and
control over one’s environment.
John Dewey: “The educational process has no end
beyond itself; is its own end”.
Aims and Purposes in Education
An aim is a logical prerequisite of a
Unless some end is regarded as valuable
no practical theory is possible.
A practical theory consists simply of an
argument providing recommendations for
achieving some end thought desirable.
Practice is always theory-loaded.
Distinction between an aim and a
Someone who is engaged in a practical task
What are you doing?
What are you doing it for?
someone is being asked to
specify what his action is, to
state its content
to presuppose some end outside
the activity itself, which the
activity is designed and intended
to bring about
I am digging over
this piece of
What are you digging
that piece of ground
So that I can grow
potatoes in it
• The answer is given in instrumental terms, one thing
being done in order to achieve another, the end product
lying outside the activity itself. ‘Purposes’ point to ends
external to an activity.
• The answer does not refer to any external end, it merely
makes clear what is being done.
To talk of purposes is always to refer to some
external end to which the activity is directed, to talk
of aims is not to refer to external ends but to the
activity itself, to its internal end.
Relevance in Education
A teacher maybe asked to state his aim in a particular lesson,
that is to make clear what he is doing or trying to do.
He may also be asked what is really a separate question,
namely, why he is doing it, what he is doing it for, what his
purpose is in trying to get his pupils to write poetry or to
solve quadratic equations.
So too, it is possible to ask of education itself, what its aims
are and what its purpose maybe.
The aim of education, as has already been suggested, is to
produce an educated man, one who meets the various
criteria of intellectual, moral and aesthetic development.
Subordinate aims of education: the development of
literary awareness, or the giving of an appreciation of
scientific or mathematical modes of thinking, but taken all
together these various subordinate aims coalesce in the
overall end of making a certain kind of person.
To ask the aim of education is to conceive of education as
an end in itself, something intrinsically good, involving the
development of a person.
The purpose of education, it might be said, is to
increase the number of literate, knowledgeable
citizens, or to produce sufficient numbers of doctors,
lawyers, civil servants, engineers and the like.
Here the reference is to valuable ends which lies
outside the actual practice of education, social,
political or economic ends.
To ask the purpose or purposes of education is to think
of it as a device designed to bring about external
goods, skilled workers, executive, and professionals.
It is because of this
distinction that it is
often said that the
aims of education are
internal and that it is
inappropriate to ask
for an aim which lies
Education, it may be
thought, being an end
to itself should not be
regarded in terms of
purpose. But it makes
good sense to ask:
Why do we want welldeveloped, sensitive,
Aims and Purpose
The educated man
needs also to be a
good citizen, a good
worker, a good
colleague, and being
educated man may be,
indeed should be, a
great help in achieving
important purposes as
well as important aims.
Learning is finding out what you
already know. Doing is demonstrating
that you know it. Teaching is
reminding others that they know just
as well as you.
You are all learners, doers,