Elements Common to mostObservational Systems. • purpose for the observation • operational definitions of all the observed behaviors • training procedures for observers • a specific observational focus • a setting • a unit of time • an observation schedule • a method to record the data • a method to process and analyze data
TYPES OF CLASSROOMVISITS IN THE PHILPPINES •Scheduled Visit •Unscheduled Visit- •Invitational Visit-
TYPES OF SUPERVISIONOF INSTRUCTION• CLINICAL SUPERVISION – It is a supervision that develops the teacher’s sense of responsibility to grow professionally, analyze his/her own performance and to accept change and assistance
• Concepts for Intervention in Clinical Supervision Self-analysis, Openness to change Willingness to accept assistance Self-direction
CHARACTERISTICS OFCLINICAL SUPERVISION • 1. It is a deliberate intervention into the instructional process. • 2. It is goal oriented. • 3. It assumes a professional working relationship between teacher(s) and supervisor(s).
• 4. It requires a high degree of mutual trust, as reflected in understanding, support, and commitment to growth.• 5. It is systematic, although it requires a flexible and continuously changing methodology.• 6. It assumes that the supervisor knows about the analysis of instruction and learning and also about productive human interaction.
CLINICAL SUPERVISION MODEL• 1. Pre-conference with teacher• 2. Observation of the classroom• 3. Analyzing and interpreting observation and determining conference approach Post-conference with teacher.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLINICAL SUPERVISION AND TRADITIONAL SUPERVISIONVALUES CLINICAL SUPERVISION TRADITIONAL SUPERVISIONAim To help improve instruction Evaluation of instructionBasis Classroom Data Observer’s RatingFocus Limited specific concerns Broad general concernsFrequency Based on Need Based on policyPhilosophy Promotes Independence Promotes dependenceProcess Cyclical LinearResponsibility Shared between teacher and Supervisor’s Responsibility supervisor
COGNITIVE COACHING• This supervision engages the teacher to become supportive to collegial investigation, and reflection of the teaching-learning process .
Evaluative Steps in Cognitive Coaching Collaborative Reflection- comparing actual and desired student performance Evaluating appropriateness of teaching strategies Analyzing effects of teacher’s classroom behavior and other’s
Important Stages of Meta-Cognition• Planning The coach helps teachers to think carefully through their planned lessons ; anticipate what might happen during the lesson; plan a way to document what will transpire during the lesson.
• Lesson Observation The classroom instruction is observed and documented as it takes place. Desired behaviors are used as bases for discussion during the reflection conference. Student achievement and strategies, and decisions made during the lesson are noted.
• Reflection Conference Coaches facilitate and mediate by helping teachers do the following:• Summarize impressions and assessments of the lesson• Recall the data supporting those impressions and assessments• Express feelings about the lesson• Compare the plan with the actual implementation of the lesson• Analyze why desired outcomes were not achieved/achieved• Deduce relationships between student achievement and teacher behavior
MENTORING• This method is helping teacher by another teacher to develop one’s skills in teaching. It develops both the confidence of the teachers who are involved.
PEER ASSESSMENT• A “peer” may be a co-worker, a partner, an associate, or a collaborator. Peers may assess or evaluate each other without feeling threatened and anxious of the possible loss of self-esteem because of proximity, equality, and safety that exist between and among them.
PORTOLIO ASSESSMENT• Teacher portfolio is a collection of works, records, and documents demonstrating and highlighting a teacher’s knowledge and skills in teaching.
Contents of Teacher Portfolio – Teacher’s background – Class description: time, grade, and content – Licensure examinations – A personal statement of teaching philosophy and goals – Faculty development effort such as workshops, seminars and programs – Implemented lesson plans, handouts and notes. – Graded student work such as tests, quizzes, and class projects. – Video/audiotape of classroom lessons – Colleagues observations on teaching – Photographs of bulletin boards, chalkboards or projects
ACTION RESEARCH • It is an inquiry that teachers design and conduct in order to improve teaching performance. . The process provides teachers new opportunities to reflect on and evaluate their own teaching personally; explore and try out innovative ideas and assess how effective the innovations are.
• It promotes the concept of teacher- as-researcher which encourages teachers to be collaborators not only in improving teaching behavior, but also in revising curriculum, improving working environment, professionalizing teaching, and developing policy.