Tourism, Environment &Enterprise Development ENGR. JOHN A. LIWANAG Discussant/Lecturer Master in Management Engineering Pangasinan State University Urdaneta City, Pangasinan Prof. Jo B. Bitonio, DPA
Llano del Muerto waterfall in El Salvador Lacandon Jungle in Mexico Fernando de Noronha in Brazil Masai Mara park reserve in Kenya.
Definition: Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low- impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial (mass) tourism. Its purpose may be to educate the traveller, to provide funds for ecological conservation, to directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities, or to foster respect for different cultures and for human rights.
Ecotourism is a form oftourism that involvesvisiting natural areas—inthe remote wilderness orrural environments.According to the definitionand principles ofecotourism established byThe InternationalEcotourism Society (TIES) in1990, ecotourism is"Responsible travel tonatural areas thatconserves the environmentand improves the well-beingof local people." (TIES,1990).
Its Purpose Generally, ecotourism focuses on socially responsible travel, personal growth, and environmental sustainability. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Ecotourism is intended to offer tourists insight into the impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats.
Eco-Tourism Criteria A 2002 summit held in Quebec led to the 2008 Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria, a collaborative effort between the UN Foundation and other advocacy groups. The criteria, which are voluntary, involve the following standards: "effective sustainability planning, maximum social and economic benefits for local communities, minimum negative impacts on cultural heritage, and minimum negative impacts on the environment." (Clarkin and Kähler, p. 423)
Criteria• Involves travel to natural destinations;• Minimizes impact on the environment;• Builds environmental awareness;• Provides direct financial benefits for conservation;• Provides financial benefits and empowerment for local people;• Respects local culture; and• Supports human rights and democratic movements
Advantage over Mass-Tourism – conservation of biological diversity and through ecosystem protection – promotion of sustainable use of biodiversity, by providing jobs to local populations – sharing of socio-economic benefits with local communities and indigenous people s by having their informed consent and participation in the management of ecotourism enterprises – tourism to unspoiled natural resources, with minimal impact on the environment being a primary concern. – minimization of tourisms own environmental impact – affordability and lack of waste in the form of luxury – local culture, flora and fauna being the main attractions – local people benefit from this form of tourism economically, often more than mass tourism
Its Economic Benefits Ecotourism Society Pakistan (ESP) explains "Ecotourism is a travel activity that ensures direct financial support to local people where tourism activities are being generated and enjoyed. It teaches travellers to respect local cultures of destinations where travellers are visiting. It supports small stakeholders to ensure that money must not go out from the local economies. It discourage mass tourism, mass construction of hotels, tourism resorts and mass activities in fragile areas". For many countries, ecotourism is not simply a marginal activity to finance protection of the environment, but is a major industry of the national economy.
Its Economic Benefits The increased contributions of communities to locally managed ecotourism create viable economic opportunities, including high level management positions, and reduce environmental issues associated with poverty and unemployment. Because the ecotourism experience is marketed to a different lifestyle from large scale ecotourism, the development of facilities and infrastructure does not need to conform to corporate Western tourism standards, and can be much simpler and less expensive. There is a greater multiplier effect on the economy, because local products, materials, and labor are used. Profits accrue locally and import leakages are reduced.
Its Economic Benefits The multiplier effect arises because of the induced increases in consumer spending which occur due to the increased incomes — and because of the feedback into increasing business revenues, jobs, and income again. This process does not lead to an economic explosion not only because of the supply-side barriers at potential output (full employment) but because at each "round", the increase in consumer spending is less than the increase in consumer incomes.
Natural resource management Natural resource management can be utilized as a specialized tool for the development of ecotourism. There are several places throughout the world where the amount of natural resources are abundant. But, with human encroachment on habitats these resources are depleting. Without knowing the proper utilization of certain resources they are destroyed and floral and faunal species are becoming extinct. Ecotourism programs can be introduced for the conservation of these resources.
Negative impact of tourism Ecotourism has become a source of conflict over control of land, resources, and tourism profits. In this case, ecotourism has harmed the environment and local people, and has led to conflicts over profit distribution. In a perfect world more efforts would be made towards educating tourists of the environmental and social effects of their travels. Very few regulations or laws stand in place as boundaries for the investors in ecotourism. These should be implemented to prohibit the promotion of unsustainable ecotourism projects and materials which project false images of destinations, demeaning local and indigenous cultures.
Direct environmental impacts Ecotourism activities are, in and of themselves, issues in environmental impact because they may disturb fauna and flora. Ecotourists believe that because they are only taking pictures and leaving footprints, they keep ecotourism sites pristine, but even harmless- sounding activities such as nature hikes can be ecologically destructive. In the Annapurna Circuit in Nepal, ecotourists have worn down the marked trails and created alternate routes, contributing to soil impaction, erosion, and plant damage. Where the ecotourism activity involves wildlife viewing, it can scare away animals, disrupt their feeding and nesting sites, or acclimate them to the presence of people. Wildlife- observer disruption drives cheetahs off their reserves, increasing the risk of inbreeding and further endangering the species.
Environmental hazards “…deforestation, disruption of ecological life systems and various forms of pollution, all of which contribute to environmental degradation.”
Protected Areas Management Republic Act 7586 - National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act of 1992 – sets the establishment of protected areas in the Philippines to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems, to preserve genetic diversity, to ensure the sustainable use of resources found therein, and to maintain their natural conditions to the greatest extent possible.
Statistics (2004)- 209 sites (approx. 2.5 million hectares) identified as initial components of NIPAS;- 99 sites (aggregate area of 2.9 million hectares) already proclaimed as protected areas under the NIPAS;- Other areas are still being assessed and proposed for proclamation;- Region 1 has a total of 16 proclaimed protected areas (25,701.95 hectares) comprising national parks, national marine parks, national marine reserve, game refuge and bird sanctuary, wilderness area, watershed forest reserve, mangrove swamp, protected landscape/seascape and natural monument/ landmarksSource: Biodiversity Management Division, PAWB
List of Initial Components under NIPAS in R-1Name of Protected Area Location Legislation Date AreaA. (National Parks)- Paoay Lake NP Paoay, IN RA 5631 6/21/69 1,744.00 PD 1554 6/11/78 340.00- Bessang Pass NS Cervantes, IS Proc. 55 8/10/54 304.00 (Proclaimed as Bessang Pass Natural Monument/Landmark under Proc. 284 dtd April 23, 2000)- Northern Luzon Heroes Hill Santa/Narvacan, IS Proc. 132 7/09/63 1,316.00- Agoo Damortis NP Agoo/Rosario, LU RA 4570 6/19/65 10,946.95 (Proclaimed as Agoo-Damortis Protected Landscape & Seascape under Proc. 277 dtd April 23, 2000)- Manleluag Spring Mangatarem, Pang. Proc. 612 9/03/40 91.70 (Proclaimed as Manleluag pring Protected Landscape under Proc. 576 dtd March 10, 2004)- Tirad Pass NP Cervantes, IS Proc. 294 7/20/38 6,320.00- Hundred Island NP Alaminos City, Pang. Proc.667 7/18/40 1,676.30 Proc. 1816 1/30/79 Proc.2183 4/27/83 PD 189 5/11/73
List of Initial Components under NIPAS in R-1Name of Protected Area Location Legislation Date AreaB. (Watershed Forest Reserve)- Ilocos Norte WFR Pauquin, IN Proc.731 9/7/34 2,815.00 Proc.218 6/23/67- Magnuan WFR Batac, IS Proc.220 7/02/67 47.00 (Proclaimed as Libunao Protected Landscape under Proc. 280 dtd April 23, 2000)- Bigbiga Spring WFR Narvacan, IS Proc. 431 8/16/39 135.00 (Proclaimed as Bigbiga Protected Landscape under Proc. 290 dtd April 23, 2000)- SantaWFR Santa, IS Proc. 844 9/26/35 25.00- Lidlidda WFR Lidlidda, IS Proc. 79 9/17/36 1,228.00 (Proclaimed as Lidlidda Protected Landscape under Proc. 266 dtd April 23, 2000)- Sta. Lucia WFR Sta. Lucia, IS Proc. 333 10/18/38 174.00 (Proclaimed as Sta. Lucia Protected Landcape under Proc. 296 dtd April 23, 2000)- Naguilian Watershed Reservation Naguilian, LU Proc.52 4/11/36 90.00- Tanap WFR Burgos, IN Proc. 803 02/01/71 41.00
Local Eco-Tourism Facilities The Manleluag Spring Protected Landscape in Brgy. Malabobo, Mangatarem, Pangasinan is a protected area managed by the DENR. It has a total area of 1,941.7 hectares zoned as follows: 412.5 ha for wildlife habitat; 57.34 ha for multiple use; 539.46 ha for sustainable use; 15.70 ha for restoration; 825 ha for buffer; and 91.7 ha for recreation. The Protected Landscape has low to rolling and moderately steep slopes of 40% with elevation of 315 m ASL. It has two hot springs, which accordingly cropped out in the area due to an extinct small volcano present in the area. Has an annual average of 22,027 visitors and an annual income of Php341,649.80
Local Eco-Tourism Facilities The Hundred Islands National Park (Pangasinan: Kapulo-puloan or Taytay- Bakes) located in Alaminos City, Pangasinan has 124 islands at low tide and 123 at high tide which are scattered along Lingayen Gulf and cover an area of 18.44 square kilometres (4,557 acres). They are believed to be about two million years old. Only three of them have been developed for tourists: Governor Island, Quezon Island, and Childrens Island. The islands are actually ancient corals that extend well inland, in an area previously comprising the seabed of an ancient sea. Lowering sea levels have exposed them to the surface and the peculiar "mushroom"- like shapes of some of the islands have been caused by the eroding action of the ocean waves.
Other Points of Interest: One Pangasinan Alliance or OPAL(DMA) is an economic alliance of six towns and one city ofwestern Pangasinan• Tambobong White Beach in Dasol• Caves of Dasol• Tondol Beach in Anda• Cacupangan Cave System (Bintanilya, Binmatya, Villacorta Caves)in Brgys Tagudin & Villacorta, Mabini• Sto. Rosario Cave System (Tubo-Tubo, Bual, Cabalyoriza Caves) in Brgys San Pedro & Barlo, Mabini• Caves in Brgy. De Guzman, Mabini• Balincaguin River in Mabini• Sawang Falls in Brgy. Villcorta, Mabini• Nalsoc Cave System (Mel-let, Abot Aso Caves) in Brgy. Colayo, Bani• Bolinao Museum in Bolinao• Hundred Islands Marine Sanctuary in Alaminos• Oceanographic Marine Laboratory in Alaminos• Hundred Islands National Park of Alaminos• Umbrella Rocks of Agno• Viewdeck in Suasalito, Sual, Pangasinan• Dumaloy Cave & Sinkhole in Bolinao
What we are doing to the forestsof the world is but a mirrorreflection of what we are doingto ourselves and to oneanother.”― Mahatma Gandhi
REFERENCES– Honey, Martha (2008). Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? (Second ed.)..– Untamed Path Defining Ecotourism. Retrieved on 2009-03-24.– Randall, A. (1987). Resource economics, Second Edition. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons.– The Encyclopedia of Ecotourism, Cabi Publishing– Buckley, R. (1994). Research Note, a framework for ecotourism. Annals of Tourism Research. pp. 21(3):661–669.– Bar kin, D. (2002). Eco tourism for sustainable regional development. Current Issues in Tourism. pp. 5(3–4):245–253.– DENR Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB)