Chapter 3

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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Chapter 3 COOPERATIVE PARTICIPATION In TOURISM PLANNING
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • Create awareness of the stakeholders/key players in tourism management; • Be aware of a number of introductory issues in relation to the key players in tourism planning and management; and • Examine the influence of these key players to the planning and development.
  3. 3. Introduction • Discussion of tourism management requires consideration of a number of factors, including; - Who is managing? - What is being managed? - How is it being managed? - Where is it happening? - When is it happening? Who?
  4. 4. Key Players in Tourism Management • The Tourists; • The Host Population; • The Government (at all levels); • The Tourism Industry; • NGOs / Voluntary Organizations; and • Media.
  5. 5. The “ETB Triangle” Visitor Place Host Community (External influences) (External influences) (External influences) Adapted from ETB, 1991
  6. 6.  Click to edit the outline text format − Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level − Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level Key Player #1: The Tourists
  7. 7. Basic Responsibilities (Swarbrooke, 1999) • To obey local laws and regulations • Not to take part in activities which are illegal and being widely condemned by the society • Not to deliberately offend local religious beliefs or cultural norms of behavior • Not to harm the local physical environment • To minimize the use of scarce local resources
  8. 8. The rights of the Tourists Those who are responsible for protecting these rights • to be safe and secured from crime, terrorism and disease • Host • Government (security services and health authorities) • not to be discriminated against on the grounds of race, sex or disability • Host • Tourism Industry • Government (immigration departments) • not to be exploited by local businesses and individuals • Tourism Industry • Host • Government (police)
  9. 9. The rights of the Tourists Those who are responsible for protecting these rights • right to the fair marketing of products through honest travel brochures and advertisements • Tourism Industry • Government (advertising regulators) • right to a safe, clean, physical environment • Host • Tourism Industry • Government (environmental bodies and policy departments) • right to free and unrestricted movement providing that they cause no damage; meet local people freely • right to courteous and competent service • Government (police) • Host • Tourism Industry
  10. 10. Key Player #2: The Host Community
  11. 11. Key Player #2: The Host Community • Also termed as local/resident/destination community • It can act as a major attraction for the tourists (cultural manifestations) • Host community is heterogeneous not homogeneous, thus the importance of different groups and vested interests needs to be recognized. • May be passive recipients of tourists or actively involved in tourism, also in its planning and management
  12. 12. Key Player #3: The Government
  13. 13. Key Player #3: The Government • Frequently referred to as the public sector • Its role in tourism development depends on the type of government (democratic or dictatorship) and the status (developed or developing) of the country where the planning is involved.
  14. 14. Main reasons for the involvement of the public sector in tourism: • The public sector is mandated to represent the whole population and not just one set of stakeholders or interest group. • The public sector is intended to be impartial, with no particular vested or commercial interests. • The public sector can take a longer-term view of tourism development than the private sector.
  15. 15.  Click to edit the outline text format − Second Outline Level  Third Outline Level − Fourth Outline Level  Fifth Outline Level • Governments may not only attempt to regulate tourism, but they also have a role in marketing tourism.
  16. 16. • Governments in most developed countries and increasingly in developing countries are also involved in setting aside areas designated for special protection for environmental and cultural reasons. (creation of National Parks and EIA requirement) • Relying on the education of tourists in an attempt to modify their behaviour in relation to potential and real impacts. • Governments can also develop the infrastructure necessary for both public and private sector tourism activities.
  17. 17. Sample Case: Tourism development in Dubai and the role of government • The countries rulers (the Al Makthoum Royal Family) opted for tourism as the key component of a strategy • Increase in visitor arrivals was made possible by: - Upgrading of the international airport - Opening of a cruise ship terminal in 2003 - Concentration on the top end of the accommodation spectrum - Offering desert-based activities (safaris, 4WD, camel-based excursions) - Developing Dubai as a shopping destination
  18. 18. Key Player #4: The Tourism Industry
  19. 19. Key Player #4: The Tourism Industry • In the tourism system, each zone contains tourism industry organizations. • Although tourism industry is complex, there are many linkages between different sectors. (tour operators and travel agents) • Even competing organizations are linked. (Qantas and British Airways) • Tourism industry manage their operations through the marketing mix (4+1 P’s of marketing)
  20. 20. Key Player #4: The Tourism Industry • Early 21st century, tourism companies had become involved in creating awareness of the possible negative impacts tourism may bring • This include recycling, promoting ‘green’ holidays, providing information on environmentally sound activities for tourists and donating money for local charities. • Tourism industry has the ability to self-regulate
  21. 21. Key Player #5: The NGOs
  22. 22. Key Player #5: The NGOs • Include pressure groups, voluntary trusts, some of which have charitable status, and industry associations.
  23. 23. Key Player #6: Media
  24. 24. Key Player #6: Media • Has a key role in tourism planning and management • Regular travel shows, travelog programs, newspapers with travel sections, travel-related magazines and radio programmes, travel information on the web • Guidebook-oldest form of literature concerned with travel • Media can even create a tourist attraction

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