Different Approaches to Information Age Reform


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Different Approaches to Information Age Reform

  1. 1. THE SPREAD OF INFORMATION AGE REFORM SHERYLE A. DOMINGO DM 216 - Information Technology Management Master in Development Management
  3. 3. If we consider reform in general, then there is no doubt about its spread: whatever their guise or terminology, public sector reform initiatives have been on the increase. They have spread to all corners of the globe. Within individual countries, they have increasingly set the agenda for public sector managers. The most tangible evidence of SPREAD comes from the increasing use of Information Technology within government.
  4. 4. The origins of Information Technology in government are often traced back to Herman Hollerith, who work for the US Census Bureau in the 1880s. He developed a tabulating machine based on punched cards which was first used for the 1890 national census and subsequently for tabulating military payroll. The company Hollerith founded to produce his machine is today’s International Business Machine(IBM); the largest IT firm in the world.
  5. 5. Just as IBM has grown huge from small roots, so too has government use of IT. There are no reliable figures, but can guess estimate that up to US$500 billion per year is being spent world-wide on IT based information systems in the public sector. WASHINGTON – The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) released its updated annual “Report on Information Technology (IT) Spending for the Federal Government.” This update details the approximately $66.4 billion of requested FY 2008 IT spending, a 2.3 percent increase over the FY 2007 enacted total. http://georgewbushwhitehouse.archives.gov/omb/pubpress/2007/052407_it_spending.pdf ACCESSED 9/20/2013 In 2008-09, annual Queensland Government ICT spending reached $1.5 billion , of which 56% or $845 million was directed towards ongoing operations of the sector's existing business applications and technology infrastructure http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Research+and+Markets%3a+In+200809%2c+Annual+Queensland+Government+ICT...-a0213312431 ACCESSED 9/20/2013
  6. 6. In year 2008-2009 Australian government spend US$5.17 billion in IT http://agimo.gov.au/files/2012/04/ict_expenditu re_report_2008-09_-_2010-11.pdf Accessed 9/20/2013 Philippines Governance Systems and Efficiency Digitalization Program Php6,600,00.00; Php66,797,000 Financial Management Information System Php71,802,000 for the National Payroll System. (Office of the President) http://www.dbm.gov.ph/?page_id=3610 accessed 9/20/2013
  7. 7. • Saudi Arabia spending on information technology to US$4.1 billion dollars in 2012, with an annual increase of 9% over the past years http://we-en.blogspot.com/2013/02/41billionin-spending-on-information.html accessed 9/20/2013
  8. 8. Public Sector organizations undertaking their initial computerizations will typically see IT as means of increasing efficiency; automating the human effort within existing manual procedures and thereby attempting to cut staff costs. It is here that the majority of IT has so far been implemented in the public sector. At the other hand of the spectrum, a number of countries have been investing in electronic government projects, with a particular emphasis on using IT to improve the delivery of public services, combining the aims of increasing efficiency and becoming more customer responsive.
  9. 9. In dynamic terms, the IT base available to support the reinvention of the government is increasing every year. In many governments, increasing hopes about IT’s contribution to reform translate into increasing IT investment rates. Recently real average increases in annual government IT expenditure include 8% in the US, 23% in Malaysia and 61% in Singapore
  10. 10. The relationship between IT and government reinvention is increasing not only in terms of investment, but also in terms of visibility, with a number of highprofile initiatives having been launched during the 1990s. These have spread on a policy wave from early epicenters: notably the US but also Singapore. They include: • Australian Initiatives to make use of IT in government reinvention were launched in 1996 as an IT blueprint for the public sector. By 1998 the portfolio of initiatives included Fed link, which will create a whole government intranet, and the Commonwealth Information Centre, which will provide a single point of access to government information.
  11. 11. • European Union The Interchange of Data between Administration (IDA) programme, initiated in 1995 and entering its second phase in 1998, uses computer networks to enable exchange of public sector information between European governments. • India The Leadership and Excellence in Andhara Pradesh in the 21st Century (LEAP21) initiative, launched in 1997, aims to use IT as a significant lever to the creation of better government in Andhra Pradesh state
  12. 12. •Philippines The governments National Information Technology Plan competitiveness and empowerment that includes plans for extensive computerization of government operations in order to improve governments capacity and efficiency across the board. In 1997, the plan was renamed IT21. •Singapore The IT2000 Intelligent Island master plan, first formulated in 1991, aims to make use of IT pervasive throughout the whole Singapore society. It includes a significant component of reengineering public services through use of IT
  13. 13. • South Korea The snappily titled Implementation Plan for Governmental Administration Informatization Promotion, originating in a 1987 information systems project, strives to increase the efficiency and quality government services through use of IT. • US The National Performance Review (NPR) of 1993 and subsequent Access America plan of 1997 aim to create better, cheaper government with a substantial role for IT in that process
  14. 14. •World Bank/ developing countries. The information for Development (InfoDev) programme was designed in 1995 to harness the "information revolution' for Third World development. It includes the aim of using IT more widely in government reform programmes Within these initiatives, IT has often been much more strongly identified as a part of information age reform than have information and updated information systems:
  15. 15. The primary objective is to investigate the scope for a significant increase in the use of on-line technology to transform government so that, by the turn of the century, most administrative business is conducted electronically
  16. 16. • The initiative focuses on using Information Technology as a strategic tool for improving the quality of life for the people of Andhra Pradesh • The vision of IT2000 is based on the farreaching use of IT to see how IT can be pervasively applied to improve business performance and the quality of life • Government direct will be founded on the new possibilties offered by information technology, and the private sector.
  17. 17. DIFFERENT REFORM APPROACHES TO The approach to reform in the public sector has changed over time as regards IT and Information. In large part, these changes relate to the changing nature of senior public officials (both politicians and managers), who have tended to set the implementation agenda for reform. We can categorize four different approaches to reform that appear over time in a "four-eyes" model:
  18. 18. 1. IGNORE Public Officials are ignorant about IT and Information System (IS). They therefore do not include consideration of their plans for reform. IT expenditure is minimal and any IT managers accidentally appointed in the public sector have a pretty thin time.
  19. 19. 2. ISOLATE Public Officials remain computer-illiterate and lack an understanding of information's role. They nevertheless are aware of IT and its potential. Investment in IT is therefore included in reform plans but is seen as the responsibility of IT experts. It is mainly associated with automation and some idea that efficiency gains will result. For other reform agendas, it is added as an afterthought and is not linked in any systematic way to the process of reform. This, nonetheless, represents the first step on the path of Information age reform. IT managers get the budgets they always wanted and a certain amount of freedom from management oversight.
  20. 20. 3. IDOLIZE Public officials have become semiliterate. They use computers and are overaware of ITs potential. They believe that IT can transform the business government. They are dimly aware that Information is something important. The public sector becomes awash with IT-driven reform projects which place technology at the heart of the change process. IT managers get huge budgets, immense workloads and the boss always looking over their shoulder and claiming any credit.
  21. 21. 4. INTEGRATE Public officials have become informationliterate. They recognize information as a key organizational resource that is central to all government functions. The reengineering of Information systems and the introduction of IT are now fully integrated into the process of organizational change, driven by reform objectives
  22. 22. INFORMATION AS A RESOURCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR GOVERNMENT • Managing government information: government information in all forms is a strategic resource and will be effectively managed throughout its lifecycle • Data administration: all government information will be subject to data administration to ensure common definitions, integrity and consistency of data.
  23. 23. • Sharing and re-using information: information will be captured once, as close to the source as possible, then shared and re-used by authorized users. • Exchanging information: once captured, government information should be stored and exchanged electronically to avoid transcribing and re-entering it manually.
  24. 24. INFORMATION AS A RESOURCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR GOVERNMENT • Protecting information: the security, integrity and privacy of government information will be ensured by integrating information technology security measures with physical, personnel screening, and other security measures. • Retaining information: government information will be retained only while there exist a business need, a legislative or policy requirement, or when it has historical or archival importance.
  25. 25. • Stewardship: specific organizational units will be accountable for managing designated classes of government information to ensure its integrity, quality and relevance, and to restrict its accessibility to authorized users only
  26. 26. BARRIERS TO AN INTEGRATED APPROACH 1. Barriers that restrict progress from the ignore approach; 2. Drivers that encourage continuance of the idolize approach; 3. Barriers that restrict diffusion of the integrate approach
  27. 27. OTHER BARRIERS INCLUDE: Technical Barriers Skills and knowledge barriers Data barriers Structural and cultural barriers
  28. 28. BARRIERS TO PROGRESS FROM THE IGNORE APPROACH 1.Skills and knowledge 2.Finance 3.Risk 4.Suspicion 5.Infrastructure
  29. 29. DRIVERS SUPPORTING THE IDOLIZE APPROACH 1. The image of IT as reform solution 2. Pressure from other external institutions 3. Continuous novelty and unfamiliarity of IT innovations 4. "Me too" attitudes 5. Other enabling trends
  30. 30. ALTERNATIVE REFORM MODELS example of a government's Bureau of Statistics: • Automation Phase Once collected from the field, statistical survey is typed by clerical staff on to a computer instead of being held on a paper. Tabulations are now performed by the computer and not by hand. .
  31. 31. • Optimization Phase The survey forms and data entry screens are simplified, and networked computers are placed in regional offices. This enables direct entry of data by field staff instead of central entry by a pool of clerical staff at headquarters.
  32. 32. • Reengineering Phase Survey questions are redesigned to provide the information that is actually required by the Bureau and its clients.
  33. 33. . • Transformation Phase The Bureau is renamed the Statistical Services Agency. It has outsourced much of its data gathering and has set up a commercial unit that provides income generating statistical services for foreign and domestic private firms. These services include an annually-updated CD-ROM of national data sets; access to certain national data sets via the internet; and an online analysis service for the provision of customized trend analysis and reporting