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Factors that Promote and Impede Popular Participation

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PA 103

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Factors that Promote and Impede Popular Participation

  1. 1. Factors that Promote or Deter Popular Participation in Development: The Philippine Experience By: Laurefel P. Gabales PA 103 Prof. Jo B. Bitonio
  2. 2. Factors that Promote or Deter Popular Participation in DevelopmentIntroductionObjectivesMethodologyPopular Participation as Defined in Philippine ResearchesThe Philippines: A brief backgrounder
  3. 3. Factors that Promote or Deter Popular Participation in DevelopmentPolicies and Mechanisms for popular ParticipationFactors that Promote/Impede Popular ParticipationRecommendation: The Search for the Filipino Participatory Ethic
  4. 4. IntroductionQuest for elusive “development”Economic growth no longer the sole concern in developmentFive Core Concepts of DevelopmentMan as end of developmentDelineation of man
  5. 5. IntroductionCollective personality of manParticipationSelf-reliance
  6. 6. ObjectivesSeeks to answer the following questionWhat has been the country’s experience in promoting popular participation in the government’s development programs?What factors may be identified as facilitating or obstructing popular participation in development?
  7. 7. ObjectivesWhat recommendations may be forwarded to stress those that facilitate and minimize those that impede popular participation?
  8. 8. ObjectivesThe study has four sectionsA brief description of the socioeconomic and political and historical makeupSelected government programs and innovations
  9. 9. ObjectivesFactors that promote and deter participationRecommendations for policy and institutional changes
  10. 10. MethodologyThe academe has drawn attention to the subjectsThe government has also caused the evaluation of existing participatory mechanismsResearches have been conducted on popular participation
  11. 11. Popular Participation as Defined in Philippine ResearchesMass sharing of the benefit of developmentMass contribution to developmentMass involvement in the decision making process for development
  12. 12. Popular Participation as Defined in Philippine ResearchesA process in which the people are directly and actively involve in the planning and implementation of rural development programs and projectsDefining the situation requiring a decisionChoosing the preferred alternatives
  13. 13. Popular Participation as Defined in Philippine ResearchesDetermining how best tom implement the decision once it is madeEvaluating the consequences of the action taken
  14. 14. Popular Participation as Defined in Philippine ResearchesThe differentiation of the decision making into planning, implementation and evaluation processConceptualizing the problemsDeciding what is to be doneImplementing the plans and programsEvaluating the results
  15. 15. Popular Participation as Defined in Philippine ResearchesPassive citizenInvolved only as recipient of the serviceCompletely dependent from external fundingDeprived when personnel for participationActive citizen
  16. 16. Popular Participation as Defined in Philippine ResearchesInvolved in the planning, implementation and evaluation of the programProgram is self supporting in fundingPersonnel fielded from communityMidpoint situationInvolved either in implementation only or in planning and implementation
  17. 17. Popular Participation as Defined in Philippine ResearchesDependent on some combination of internal and external fundingManpower fielded jointly by outside agency and local community
  18. 18. The Philippines: A Brief BackgrounderSelf-sustaining unit called barangaysSpanish centralized bureaucracyAmericans promised independenceJapanese occupationDeclared independent by AmericansMartial Law was imposed on 21 Sept 1972May 1982 election of barangay officials
  19. 19. Policies and Mechanisms for popular ParticipantsBarangaysAdvent of “paticipatory democracy”A Barangay chairman and six councilorsAdministrative channels of government as part of the delivery of services to the peopleViewed as a possible Filipino alternative to the western model – Filipino collectivism
  20. 20. Policies and Mechanisms for popular ParticipantsNEDA and the Development CouncilCreated from the Integrated Reorganization Plan which adopted from PD No. 1Tasked with formulating definite and consistent long-range and annual economic and social development plans and programs
  21. 21. Policies and Mechanisms for popular ParticipantsAssist planning at the regional levelsA development council is a structure responsible for coordinating the efforts of agencies and instrumentalities of gov’tCouncils are organized at the regional, city/ municipality and barangay levelsStrongly counterbalanced the RDC’s
  22. 22. Policies and Mechanisms for popular ParticipantsThe Philippine Rural Development ProgramManage by Rural Development Division of the Bureau of Community DevelopmentAims to promote the transformation and development of rural communitiesBuilt on the principle that development is a government enterprise
  23. 23. Policies and Mechanisms for popular ParticipantsPrimary Health ProgramLOI No. 949Practical approach that recognizes the interrelationship between health and overall socioeconomic developmentIntersectoral approach in building the foundation of health
  24. 24. Policies and Mechanisms for popular ParticipantsRecognized the for:Active community participationGood working relationshipUse of indigenous technologyDevelopment of support mechanisms
  25. 25. Policies and Mechanisms for popular ParticipantsCommunity based programsKnows , feels, and accepts responsibility for community healthTaps and develops its own resourcesPrimary focus is put by the community on community problems, resources and actions
  26. 26. Factors that Promote/Impede Popular ParticipationThe individual levelAnalysis would require more empirical testNo longer be a concept in search of methodology but rather implies that community may be the methodologyPromoting conditionsImpending conditions
  27. 27. Factors that Promote/Impede Popular ParticipationThe communityCommunity structurePhysical dispersion / Communication networksExperience in community organizingEconomic status of communityCommunity leadership selection
  28. 28. Factors that Promote/Impede Popular ParticipationInvolvement of informal leadersLeadership styleEmotional cost to communityManner of fielding community organizersThe government/other sectorsBureaucratic character / “Technical expertise”
  29. 29. Factors that Promote/Impede Popular ParticipationMeasures of performancePlan approachNature of programChoice of communityParticipationBureaucratic specialization
  30. 30. Factors that Promote/Impede Popular ParticipationThe greater society/Societal levelColonial experiencePovertyIneffectiveness of participation as a means of getting serviceOther factors
  31. 31. Recommendations: The Search for the Filipino Participatory EthicSociety’s historical pastHeavy influence and reliance on western and foreign modelsUtilize an indigenous process of evoking popular participationSearch for the distinguishing characteristics
  32. 32. Reference Introduction to Public Administration A Reader 2nd EditionNational College of Public Administration & Governance University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City, 2003

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