PAS refers to a network of organizations with specific rules and goals, structures, resources and programs. It includes the internal processes of and the interaction between and among public organizations, which are constituted to implement, help formulate, monitor or assess public policies
Public PA Socio-political and economic environmentThis system covers the PA relationship with itsimmediate public in contact, as well as the PA’sreactions to or how it is affected by the greatersocio-political and economic environment withinwhich it operates
PAS empowers people: 1) institutionalizes access to PAS services; 2) decentralizes & makes operations transparent; 3) listens and works with people; 4) procedures should be made simple and local language should be used.
Components of PAS: • Public organization - legal mandates, major functions and structures, etc. • Internal procedures and interactive efforts - perform public functions thru defined rules and procedures internal to the org. • Responsible for implementing public policies – formulated jointly by the legislative and executive branches • Conscious of the different kinds of clientele that it deals with • Socio-political, economic environment – PAS as part of the bigger social system with competing claims to limited resources and, institutions play a role in determining the utilization of resources
Components of PAS: • Public organization - legal mandates, major functions and structures, etc. • Internal procedures and interactive efforts - perform public functions thru defined rules and procedures internal to the organization • Responsible for implementing public policies – formulated jointly by the legislative and executive branches
Components of PAS: • Conscious of the different kinds of clientele that it deals with • Socio-political, economic environment – PAS as part of the bigger social system with competing claims to limited resources and, institutions play a role in determining the utilization of resources
Sources of Power of the PAS • Instrument of the state – government functions are exercised legitimately, supported by enabling state policies and authority • Enforcer and implementor of public policy – discretion in policy implementation • Service delivery system – discretion to determine quantity, quality, adequacy and timeliness of services it provides
Sources of Power of the PAS • Participant in policy formulation – advice is sought on legislation and policy-making • Technical expertise –professional training of civil servants in areas of competence on policy issues • Nationwide presence – expansive reach to mobilize support for programs all over the country.
Capability-Building (CB) CB – refers to the “building of people-based structures and institutions which is the real essence of the concept. It means enabling people to organize themselves around common needs and to work together towards common ends. It is addressed to policy makers, program implementor, and program beneficiary”.
Four Stages of CB Process Stages of CB Process Problem Identification Objective Setting Program planning Structure building
Four Outputs of CB Process Outputs of CB Process Effective self sustaining community organizations Installation of community self management process Partnership/linkage with outside structures Community problem solving capability
Political and Administrative Accountability Accountability is defined as a condition in which individuals who exercise power are constrained by external means and by internal norms. It refers to the institution of checks and balances in an organization thru which an administrator accounts for his stewardship of resources or authority.
Political and Administrative Accountability The political-administrative continuum means that elected officials are politically accountable to the electorate or their constituencies who voted them to their positions. These elected officials are held responsible thru regular elections and other means, i.e. recall and referendum. Appointive public officials answer to the people thru the elected officials who appointed them and directly to the public whom they serve.
Four Types of Accountability Types of Accountability Individual Accountability Accountability of Administrators Political Accountability Accountability of National Leaders
Four Types of Accountability • Individual accountability – public employees are answerable for the responsible, efficient and effective performance of their tasks. • Accountability of administrators – for their stewardship of the administrative authority, resources and information placed at their disposal as leaders of public organization.
Four Types of Accountability • Political accountability – of institutions that must answer for their organizational mandate and functions, particularly as they form part of the incumbent government strategy for national development. • Accountability of national leaders – elected national leadership must answer for the performance in pursuing their programs of government and their use of national resources, given the authority, power and resources vested in them by their constituency
PAS Structure • Constitutional bodies: 1) constitutional commissions - CSC, COA, COMELEC; 2) constitutionally created/mandated special bodies – CHR and Ombudsman • Executive Departments • GOCCs (wholly-owned or at least 51%) • Chartered institutions (created by law) • LGUs
Administrative RelationshipsIf an office is under the supervision and control of another unit, it means that the higher office: – Has authority to act directly, whenever specific function is entrusted by law or regulation to a subordinate – Directs the performance of a duty – Restrains the commission of acts – Reviews, approves, reverses or modified acts or decision of subordinate officials and units – Determines priorities in executing plans and programs – Prescribes standards, guidelines, plans and programs
Administrative Supervision and Attachment Administrative supervision: – Oversee the operations of such agencies to insure these are managed effectively, efficiently and economically; no interference in day to day activities – Require submission of reports; cause the conduct of mgt audit, performance evaluation and inspection to determine rectification of violations, abuses, etc. – Review and pass upon budget proposal of such agencies, but may not increase or add to them.
Administrative Supervision and Attachment Attachment (Attached agencies or corporations) – Department represented in the board, as chair or member – Comply with periodic reporting – Department provides general policies thru its board representatives
Government Reorganization (GR) Pre planning or Reorganization Government Preparation of Reorganization Reorganization proposals Final Stage
Government Reorganization (GR)• GR - planned deliberate efforts to systematically alter the existing organizational structure usually for the purpose of achieving government objectives with more economy, efficiency and effectiveness.• Pre-planning or reorganization: 1) how reorganization is initiated; 2) who is the authority vested with reorganization; 3) setting goals and tasks; 4) defining the powers to reorganize & outline the scope; 5) setting resources• Preparation of reorganization proposals: 1) constituting the reorganization body; 2) preparing the reorganization proposals; 3) recruiting support and staff; 4) creating information base for preparation of proposals• Final stage is the passage of a law that grants the authority to implement the reorganization process
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation • Budgetary parameters is determined by the Department Budget Coordination Committee (DBCC) composed of DBM, NEDA, DOF, BSP and OP. DBCC recommends: – level of annual government expenditure program and ceiling for government spending for economic and social development, national defense, general government and debt service – proper allocation of expenditures for each development activity between current operating expenditures and capital outlay – amount set to be allocated for capital outlay under each developments activity for the various capital or infra projects. Sets budget ceiling consistent with macro-economic targets as presented in the MTPDP
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation Approval of the President & the Cabinet
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation After budget parameters are approved, DBM issues the budget call (National Budget Circular), defining the budget framework. Budget hearings. Upon receipt of the budget call, agencies issue their own internal office guidelines to prepare budgetary estimates along the broad framework of the policy guidelines. Budget review and consolidation. After agency hearings, modifications and revisions of agency budget proposals may be made. DBM consolidates results of these changes and clears with the President thru DBCC. President then authorized DBM to estimate total expenditures & reconcile with revenue estimates.
Budget Cycle: Budget Preparation Budget validation and confirmation. After consolidation into a national budget, this is subjected to further evaluation/validation, by DBM thru comprehensive policy review of all agency and special purpose fund budgets, then to DBCC for examination. Approval by the President and Cabinet. The approved budget is forwarded to Congress, together with the President’s budget message and other documents, i.e. Budget of Expenditure and Sources of Financing, the National Expenditure Program, and the Regional Expenditure Program.
Budget Approval, Execution & Accountability Budget approval. Converting budget proposal into law – the General Appropriations Act (GAA) Budget Execution: Allotment and cash release program based on the GAA. Agency submits to DBM its Agency Budget Matrix (ABM). DBM issues the Special Allotment Release Order (SARO) and Notice of Cash Allocation (NCA) Budget Accountability. Establishes accountability of government agencies that received public funds, thru system of monitoring agency performance vis-à-vis approved work targets.
The Budget Cycle Budget Preparation (DBCC, agencies) Budget Budget Approval Accountability (Congress)(agencies, COA) Budget Process Budget Execution (agencies)
Sources:Alfiler Ma. Concepcion P. Philippine AdministrativeSystem (PAS)., UP Open University, DilimanQuezon CityRubico, Naty. Philippine Administrative System UP NCPAG 2010