Information management report on ICT


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  • Throughout the 1970s this was largely limited to files, file maintenance, and the life cycle management of paper-based files, other media and records. With the proliferation of information technology starting in the 1970s, the job of information management took on a new light, and also began to include the field of data maintenance. No longer was information management a simple job that could be performed by almost anyone. An understanding of the technology involved, and the theory behind it became necessary. As information storage shifted to electronic means, this became more and more difficult. By the late 1990s when information was regularly disseminated across computer networks and by other electronic means, network managers, in a sense, became information managers. Those individuals found themselves tasked with increasingly complex tasks, hardware and software. With the latest tools available, information management has become a powerful resource and a large expense for many organizations.
  • Starting 1992, cellular mobile telephone services (CMTS) were offered by public carriers with approved franchises on either regional or national coverage. In 1997, the cellular phone density was at 18.78 phones per 1,000 persons, or about 53 users for every cell phone.
  • 5.4 million land-based telephone lines were installed from 1993 to 1997 with the implementation of the Service Area Scheme of the DOTC’s Basic Telephone Program. Telephone density increased nearly 10 times from 1992 to 1998.
  • Most national government offices have automated their clerical functions using word processing and spreadsheets. But while there are a number of transaction processing systems in key government agencies, these systems have limited scope and functionality, are seldom integrated with related systems in other government agencies, and in general, fail to provide timely and accurate decision-making support.
  • Information management report on ICT

    1. 1. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT By Abigail Pugal-Somera
    2. 2. DEFINITION Information Management • • is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences. This sometimes involves those who have a stake in, or a right to that information. Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information. entails organizing, retrieving, acquiring, securing and maintaining information. It is closely related to and overlapping with the practice of data management.
    7. 7. PERSONAL COMPUTERS MARKET • The personal computers market increased tremendously with average annual sales estimated at 350,000 units. About 20% of total sales is bought for home use, the rest for office and business use (Velasco, UAP/CRC 1999).
    8. 8. INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS 1995 • 19 1997 • 160 As of end 1997, Internet subscribers numbered 50,000 to 75,000 while an additional 150,000 to 225,000 nonsubscribers have access to the Internet through schools, offices, and cyber cafes (Velasco, UAP/CRC 1999).
    9. 9. SOFTWARE SERVICE PROVIDERS • A UNIDO study (1997) showed that local software providers are small, with very limited capital and capacity to develop products that will satisfy government’s sophisticated requirements. Government needs to address this through policies and strategies that will stimulate capital formation and encourage partnerships between local software and solution providers and government. The situation also calls for a government study on the possibility and implications of opening up the procurement of huge ICT projects to global competition.
    11. 11. COMMON OBJECTIVES OF ICT POLICIES • Increasing the benefits from information technology • Helping people and organizations to adapt to new circumstances and providing tools and models to respond rationally to challenges posed by ICT • Providing information and communication facilities, services and management at a reasonable or reduced cost • Improving the quality of services and products • Encouraging innovations in technology development, use of technology and general work flows Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    12. 12. COMMON OBJECTIVES OF ICT POLICIES • Promoting information sharing, transparency and accountability and reducing bureaucracy within and between organizations, and towards the public at large • Identifying priority areas for ICT development (areas that will have the greatest positive impact on programmes, services and customers) • Providing citizens with a chance to access information; they may further specify the quality of that access in terms of media, retrieval performance, and so on Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    13. 13. COMMON OBJECTIVES OF ICT POLICIES • Attaining a specified minimum level of information technology resources for educational institutions and government agencies • Supporting the concept of lifelong learning • Providing individuals and organizations with a minimum level of ICT knowledge, and the ability to keep it up to date • Helping to understand information technology, its development and its cross-disciplinary impact Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    14. 14. COMMON ICT POLICY ELEMENTS • Development of ICT infrastructure Infrastructure development Interoperation of information systems Enhancement of public services Cost savings in service delivery, purchasing, communication, etc. Electronic commerce and secure transactions Development of technological standards • Development of skills Research and development ICT education and training Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    15. 15. COMMON ICT POLICY ELEMENTS • Development of legislation and policies to correspond to the requirements of new ICT Diffusion of information technology Development of ICT industries Trade policies for ICT-related goods and services Pricing and taxation of electronic services Protection of intellectual property Privacy of personal data Protection of cultural and linguistic diversity Protection against illegal and harmful content Adoption of standards Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    16. 16. COMMON ICT POLICY ELEMENTS • Institutional development and coordination Institutional and regulatory structures National ICT development coordination International interface and cooperation • Access to ICT Access to infrastructure Access to information • Monitoring ICT Monitoring the use of ICT Measurement of the impact of ICT Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    18. 18. NOTE The effectiveness of an ICT policy in one country does not guarantee that the same recipe would work in another and many developing countries face similar constraints that need to be taken into account when ICT policies are formulated. Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    19. 19. FACTORS • • ICT infrastructure is weak • Government involvement remains essential in the construction of the infrastructure in the foreseeable future in rural areas and remote locations. At the present time, only large cities are sufficiently attractive for most private developers, such as mobile phone and Internet service providers. ICT-related goods and services are made available on suppliers' terms and low per capita purchasing power does not allow markets to mature • low-cost computers (although technologically feasible) are not available is largely because the development and trade of ICT components are almost entirely supply-driven, taking into account the needs of only the minority of potential users Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    20. 20. FACTORS • • Telecommunications monopolies still exist • The liberalization of international telecommunications is, however, taking place painstakingly slowly, and retail prices have practically nothing to do with transmission costs. ICT readiness varies significantly between government departments. • Departments and agencies operating in a naturally ICTintensive field are likely to be more advanced than others. A government can help by identifying a coordinator agency to maintain information about government ICT development ventures. Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    21. 21. FACTORS • Public sector is a significant employer • Management structures and styles are not conducive • • The computerization of routine functions allows governments to reduce staff and simultaneously to improve the quality of their services. The effectiveness of such moves is often moderated by inflexibilities in employment contracts that limit the scope for staff retrenchments. Most failures in ICT application development are caused by poor planning and management, and not by the lack of resources or wrong technology choices. Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    22. 22. FACTORS • Governments are struggling to find money for basic public services • • Government budgets tend to be tight, especially in developing countries, and this can create problems for rational ICT development and hamper the ability to react quickly to new requirements or to buy the latest technology. The penetration and influence of the Internet are still minimal • The Internet is changing the way in which data and information are collected and disseminated and how services are provided to clients. Thus, most new systems should be developed with either immediate or future Internet connectivity in mind. Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    23. 23. FACTORS • Governments find it difficult to recruit and retain qualified ICT staff. • A key constraint for the effective application of ICT in developing countries is the shortage of human resources. Apart from a lack of qualified ICT-system personnel, there is often high turnover of such personnel which can seriously hamper systems development or daily operations. Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 1999
    26. 26. GOVERNMENT COMPUTERIZATION INITIATIVES • • • 1969 – “Evangelization” on the fundamental uses of computers by then Exec Sec Alejandro Melchor 12 June 1971 – National Computer Center (NCC) was established thru EO 322 1994 – government adopted the National Information Technology Plan 2000 or NITP2000 and created the National Information Technology Council as the central policy body on ICT matters in the country
    27. 27. GOVERNMENT COMPUTERIZATION INITIATIVES • February 1998 – government launche IT21, which outlines the country’s action agenda for ICT for the 21st century. One of the plan’s goals is for government to harness the use of ICT in improving its overall capacity and efficiency and thus enable local and national governments to be strategic partners in development. The plan promotes best practice ICT in governance and encourages the outsourcing of government ICT projects to stimulate industry growth.
    28. 28. GOVERNMENT COMPUTERIZATION INITIATIVES • The government formulated the Philippine Information Infrastructure (PII), which will provide the telecommunications systems and facility services, value-added network and communications services, and information or content management and applications services.
    29. 29. GOVERNMENT COMPUTERIZATION INITIATIVES • The setting up of the RPWEB through Administrative Order No. 332 provided the needed impetus for the realization of the PII. The RPWEB will serve as the country’s Intranet to achieve interconnectivity and greater efficiencies in electronic information and data interchange among government, academe, and the industry and business sectors.
    30. 30. GOVERNMENT COMPUTERIZATION INITIATIVES • E-Commerce Law - defines the Philippine government’s policies on electronic transactions and provides the legal framework for the country’s participation in e-commerce, opens vast opportunities for global trade and economic growth.
    31. 31. GOVERNMENT COMPUTERIZATION INITIATIVES • Three ICT parks offering competitive financial and tax incentives for ICT business are now being developed in three strategic sites: the Eastwood Cyber Park in Quezon City; the Northgate Cyber Zone in Alabang; and the Fort BonifacioSilicon Alley IT Park in Fort Bonifacio, Taguig. The first Software Development Park has been set up at the Subic Economic Zone, and the Ayala Group is planning to develop an ICT park in Cebu.
    33. 33. NETWORKING FACILITIES • • • “Stand-alone” applications are the prevailing mode Sharing of database or communication network has not been vigorously explored or adopted Part of the problem could be the compartmentalized nature of Philippine government offices. Information sharing among government agencies is not encouraged, and ICT planning and procurement are done in isolation, thus preventing the setting up of needed integrated application systems that cut across different agencies.
    34. 34. NETWORKING FACILITIES • • Only a small percentage of existing government ICT facilities can meet future computing and communication requirements; hence, the need for massive upgrading and installation of servers and client machines. Data communication facilities are unavailable in many locations. Even reliable voice communication services are nonexistent in some remote parts of the country. Some municipalities and barangays do not have reliable and continuous electric power yet. In many areas, Internet access can be obtained only by connecting to regional urban centers like Naga in Southern Luzon, Iloilo and Cebu in the Visayas, and Davao and Cagayan de Oro in Mindanao.
    35. 35. SUPPORT INFRASTRUCTURE AND TECHNOLOGICAL KNOW-HOW • ICT expertise and knowhow are a vital component of the support infrastructure. Developing and maintaining computerized information and communication systems require a large pool of competent ICT professionals for systems beyond office productivity and clerical applications. But we are experiencing another brain drain in this field, as Filipino ICT professionals get attracted to the high-paying ICT jobs overseas. The situation is aggravated by the comparatively low salaries and limited career opportunities that government offers.
    36. 36. ICT STANDARDS IN GOVERNMENT • The challenge is to ensure interoperability and compatibility among the different information and communication systems of government. The immediate task is to formulate, disseminate and enforce a common set of ICT standards for all government organizations.
    37. 37. ICT MANPOWER IN GOVERNMENT • • • The 1997 NCC survey on the level of computerization in government showed that only 1.5% or 4,120 of the total 282,888 employees in respondent agencies comprise the ICT manpower complement, and about half of these are data encoders and computer operators. The others are programmers, systems analysts, and managers/administrators. These data indicate the need for massive training and change management in government agencies to retool the existing manpower pool being tapped for ICT functions. It is also imperative that agency heads be educated on ICT to raise their appreciation level of the importance of ICT in improving workplace processes and for policy formulation and administration.
    38. 38. COMPUTERIZATION IN LGUs • • • • The 1997 NCC survey showed that all of the 42 provinces and 32 cities that responded have at least one microcomputer. There are neither mid-range computers nor mainframes among these local government units (LGUs). The most common applications or information systems at the local level are the payroll system and civil registration systems. Seventeen provinces and 22 cities are connected to the Internet. Computers and information systems at the local level are basically used to automate some clerical tasks and to computerize the data they collect from its clientele.
    39. 39. COMPUTERIZATION IN LGUs • • • Databases are not yet used to generate critical inputs for policy and planning processes at these levels. Only about 6% of the total 81,678 government personnel in the surveyed local government units use computers, and even a smaller proportion (2.3%) had training on information technology. Less than 1% or only 259 employees comprise the ICT personnel at the local level.
    40. 40. GOVERNMENT INVESTMENTS ON ICT • • Annual current operating expenses for ICT projects or activities are estimated at P650 million. The 1999 budget provided P1.5 billion for ICT activities. The current level of investments is still very limited in relation to the magnitude of information technology required to improve government services and institutional efficiencies.
    42. 42. GOVERNMENT BODIES Whose functions or activities relate to or affect ICT development and management in government: National Information Technology Council (NITC) Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Department of Budget and Management (DBM) Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) -Board of Investments (BOI) National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) National Computer Center (NCC) National Telecommunications Commission Commission on Audit (COA) Civil Service Commission (CSC)
    43. 43. At the policy level, the National Information Technology Council (NITC) was established in 1994 by Executive Order 190 (amended by EO 469 in 1998, and EO 125 in 1999) as the overall policymaking and coordinating body for the development of ICT in the country. The NITC has cabinet-level representation, and NITC decisions are brought directly to the highest levels of policy and decisionmaking in government, but problems continue to persist.
    44. 44. PROBLEMS 1. Inability of the principal members to participate in most meetings of the council and the tendency of sending representatives who would often have no sufficient authority or mandate to commit the agency on key issues, thus delaying action thereon; 2. Lack of a mechanism to ensure consistency of decisions at the Cabinet/NITC level, at the oversight agency level, and at the executive/project execution level; 3. Lack of a full-time technical secretariat to perform substantive functions/activities for the council such as the (a) preparation of technical/background papers for the use of the council members for a more informed discussion of issues; (b) conduct of needed follow up on council decisions; and (c) coordination, at the technical and program level, of the various ICT efforts, particularly in government.
    45. 45. OTHER ISSUES 1. Need for representation in the NITC of other key ICT players or sectors, which include the banking sector, ICT professionals, represented by the Philippine Computer Society; the software developers and producers, represented by the Philippine Software Association; and the computer manufacturers and distributors, represented by the Computer Manufacturers, Dealers and Distributors Association of the Philippines (COMDDAP) and the IT Association of the Philippines ITAP). Related to this is the issue of whether oversight constitutional bodies like COA and the CSC should also be represented in the NITC.
    46. 46. OTHER ISSUES 2. Need to generate specific action ideas and specific projects from members, particularly those from the private sector, that would clearly define their contribution as council members toward achieving the NITC’s goals and objectives; and 3. Need to address key issues, especially those that continue to hamper the more rapid growth and wider application of ICT in the country (e.g., high telecommunications cost and limited access in many areas of the country; limited bandwidth for faster access to electronic databases and the Internet; interconnection and convergence issues).
    47. 47. NOTES Some gaps have been addressed to a large extent by the issuance of EO 125, which clarified and strengthened the NITC and NCC and delineated their respective functions. The effectiveness of these new arrangements in addressing existing weaknesses and gaps in policies, particularly those concerned with public sector ICT development, remains to be seen.
    48. 48. INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY CHALLENGES 1. Government must clearly articulate the vision of ICT development in the public sector, and its role in achieving socioeconomic development goals and in pursuing more efficient, effective and responsive governance. 2. Government must define and establish ICT development priorities, particularly those relating to financing and investment. In doing so, it must resolve funding problems for existing ISP projects not included in the GISP versus GISP projects, especially in the light of limited resources. 3. There is a need to formulate technology, security, interoperability, functionality and other relevant standards and benchmarks, as well as guidelines, for the implementation of the GISP.
    49. 49. INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY CHALLENGES 4. A comprehensive procurement policy for the GISP needs to be formulated to address a wide array of issues and concerns which include the following: a. A comprehensive procurement policy for ICT resources and services should be formulated. Such policy, which should adhere to the principle of relegating to the private sector the production and provision of goods and services, should simplify procedures for procurement and contracting/outsourcing of services. b. The government needs to define an outsourcing policy that will ensure that it gets the best service for the least value. Toward this end, government should identify policies that stimulate competition, upgrade the capacities of local industry, and explore the potential of opening the government ICT market to international players.
    50. 50. INSTITUTIONAL AND POLICY CHALLENGES 5. Finally, government needs to establish clear rules, regulations and guidelines for the sharing among government agencies of ICT resources to improve utilization efficiency.
    51. 51. NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS ISSUES Government must provide the necessary policy environment that will ensure the following: 1. Level-playing field for all players to allow credible competition to flourish; 2. Transparent and clear rules to encourage innovation and therefore satisfy consumer demands on quality, affordability, and product variety;
    52. 52. NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS ISSUES 3. Workable public-private sector scheme to encourage private investments to flow, thus enhancing the quality of services; and 4. Legislated institutional reforms that will allow the regulatory body to have sufficient autonomy, free from any political interference, in the exercise of its functions.
    53. 53. FINANCING ISSUES 1. Need for a clear budget policy and framework 2. Need to sustain allocation of resources 3. Need to mobilize Official Development Assistance (ODA) and other resources
    54. 54. IMPLICATIONS OF ICT REFORMS 1. There may be significant formal organizational changes in the executive branch if the reorganization law is passed. 2. There are indications for wider decentralization of national government functions and activities. This means that government will delegate more power, authority, responsibility and accountability to their lower units, particularly in the field offices. 3. Poverty eradication entails not just the provision of huge funds for the poor but anchoring such programs on a sound knowledge of the character and extent of poverty in the country.
    55. 55. IMPLICATIONS OF ICT REFORMS 3.1 providing convenient and speedy access to government services and information on opportunities for the poor both in urban and rural areas. 3.2 providing government policymakers and implementors adequate, up-to-date, and accurate information on the status of the poor for sound and responsive policy formulation and for the design of specific interventions. 4. Reform initiatives in government housekeeping functions require the development of information systems that provide standards for agency level systems and a sound consolidation and monitoring facility at the oversight level.
    56. 56. IMPLICATIONS OF ICT REFORMS 5. With the government thrust to continue empowering local government units within the principles advocated in the devolution program, there is a need to speed up the building of LGU capacity to effectively assume increasing responsibilities.
    57. 57. ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY OF PUBLIC SECTOR FOR E - GOVERNANCE The absorptive capacity for electronic governance in the country has been growing over the past five to six years. This is expected to accelerate further with the passage of Republic Act 8792, or the Electronic Commerce Law, and as larger segments of the population gain wider access to ICT and telecommunications. At the same time, the adoption of a government ICT policy framework for a sustained and more coherent approach, as well as a positive change in the mindsets of policy and decision makers toward ICT use and investment, are expected to further accelerate public sector absorptive capacity for electronic governance. A key challenge is the development of interagency networks that will allow seamless information exchange and resource sharing among agencies that have related functions and those that work for the same sectors.