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Foundations of public administration

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Foundations of public administration

  1. 1. Foundations of Public Administration Mr. Joshue R. Santiago Special Operations Officer IV Office of the Vice Mayor, Manila
  2. 2. The Challenge
  3. 3.  We will create a Learning Environment to explore and implement socially just and democratic public service, thus We:   think critically and creatively;   communicate effectively;   work collaboratively;   embrace diversity;   value fairness and equity;   advocate powerfully on behalf of the public; and   imagine new possibilities and accomplish positive change in our workplaces and in our communities. Mission Statement
  4. 4.  There will be a lecture type presentation of topics and the students will be assigned to prepare their reports through Powerpoint Presentation as part of the students’ project.  Open Discussion after every Presentation is encouraged to provide opportunity to expound on topics at hand.  Short Quizzes will be given before the end of every meeting.  Final Examination will be conducted on the last day of the meeting in order to gauge the learning outcome of the students. Methodology
  5. 5.  Foundations of Public Administration is the first subject in a year long core program for BPA students. Through interdisciplinary study, collaborative learning, speaking across differences, and personal engagement we will address the following four questions throughout the four (4) meetings:  1) What is public administration?  2) Who are public administrators?  3) Why does public administration matter?  4) What are the Issues and Challenges in Public Administration? Course Description
  6. 6.  Nature and Scope of Public Administration  The Environment of Public Administration  Administrative Theories and Organization for Public Affairs  Management Techniques and Processes  Management of Human Resources  Fiscal Administration Topic Outline
  7. 7.  Accountability and Ethics in the Public Service  Regulatory Functions and Processes  Special Economic Zones and Local Governance  Public Enterprise and Economic Development  Issues and Challenges in Public Administration Topic Outline
  8. 8.  We show up to all classes on time.  We are prepared, listen, and share our views.  What is said in this room stays in this room.  We respect others.  We disagree with ideas, not people.  We do no harm as we engage in the learning process.  We are honest.  We do our best work.  We turn in our work on time.  We actively and enthusiastically engage in learning.  We invest in ourselves.  We create a safe place.  We have fun. Our Agreements
  9. 9.  Attendance 10%  Quizzes 20%  Report 20%  Project 20%  Finals 30%  Total 100% Grading System
  10. 10. Part I: Meaning, Nature, Scope and Significance of Public Administration
  11. 11. Views of Public Administration
  12. 12. What, Why, When, Where, Who & How?
  13. 13. According to Waldo (1955), PA has dual usages: as a field of practice and a field of study. The meaning invoked is the activity or process of administering public affairs and carrying out governmental functions. Views of Public Administration As a Field of Practice Example of PA practices  Enacting a law  Making decision on the best policy concerning an issue  Formulating the MTPDP  Maintaining peace and order  Processing of claims  Building roads and bridges  Issuance of license  Setting standard and Processes
  14. 14. Tendero (2000) explained about processes in the continuing changes in a society. What direction is our society being headed to? How to confront the various conflicts and problems? Who should be responsible? Views of Public Administration As a Field of Practice Areas of Concern  AGENDA -Absence of a blueprint reflects lack of vision  POLICY - Absence of consistent framework spells success or failure  PLANS & PROGRAMS - Absence of a plan leaves the fate of society to chance, a possibility of hit and miss in operations and will show ineffectiveness.
  15. 15. PA is concerned with discovering and advancing theoretical and practical knowledge in the field using scientific methods and other social sciences use Views of Public Administration As a Field of Study or Discipline PA differs from political science in its emphasis on bureaucratic structure and behavior and its methodologies (Rossenbloom, 1989) Example of PA as a field of study  Empirical studies  Case method analysis  Surveys  Quantitative analysis
  16. 16. Example of PA as a field of study  how a policy is made and implemented  The interrelationship between government institutions  Human Resource development  Impact of environmental regulation on communities and economic activities  the behavior and attitude of public officials as the perform their official duties  Leadership styles of public managers  Mechanisms adopted by poverty-focused programs  The relations of government and the citizens What is the PA subject matter or focus to be studied?
  17. 17. It has practical use for government, particularly in improving government performance  it prepares persons for careers in public service and trains them to be good public administrators What is also considered an applied discipline?
  18. 18. As an Art: PA involves creativity, leadership, a good sense of the intangibles in administration. This view is closely to the practice of PA Views of Public Administration As: Both an Art and a Science
  19. 19. As a Science: There is a body of knowledge or theories that can explain or predict phenomenon or variables in the field of PA  The PA theories and concepts are built based on empirical research using systematic methods  These theories can be used not only to explain but also improve the art and practice of PA (Bautista, 1990) Views of Public Administration As: Both an Art and a Science
  20. 20. Waldo, 1955 Definition of Public Administration PA is the organization and management of men and materials to achieve the purposes of government  PA is the art and science of management as applied to the affairs of the state
  21. 21. Caiden, 1971 Definition of Public Administration is a cooperative group effort in a public setting  covers all three branches – executive, legislative and judicial and interrelationships  has important role in the formulation of public policy and is , thus, part of the political process  as a field of study and practice , it has been influenced by human relations approach  is closely associated with numerous private groups and individuals in providing services to the community
  22. 22. Fry, 1989 Definition of Public Administration PA is policy-making. It is not autonomous, exclusive or isolated policy making.  PA is one of a number of basic political processes by which this people achieves and controls governance
  23. 23. Rossenbloom, 1989 Definition of Public Administration PA is the action part of government. The means by which the purposes and goals of government are realized. PA as a field is mainly concerned with the means for implementing political values  PA differs from political science in its emphasis on bureaucratic structure and behavior and its methodologies  PA differs from administrative science in the evaluative techniques used by non profit organizations because profit- seeking organizations are considerably less constrained in considering public interest in their decision-making structures and the behavior of their administrators
  24. 24. Rossenbloom, 1989 Definition of Public Administration The process of PA consists of the actions involved in effecting the intent or desire of a government . It is thus the continuously active, “business” part of government, concerned with carrying out the law, as made by the legislative bodies (or other authoritative agents)and interpreted by courts, through the processes of organization and management
  25. 25. De Guzman, 1993 Definition of Public Administration From a very broad perspective, PA may be viewed to refer not only in activities carrying out or implementing policies and programs of the government but also to the processes and contents of these policies and programs  From a broader perspective, PA may refer to the cooperative human action whether within the public bureaucracy, the private sector or in nongovernmental organizations aimed at delivering services to the people
  26. 26. Public and Private Administration Criteria Public Administration Private Administration 1.Relations to environment  subject to public scrutiny; public demand and expectations; political pressures  Less exposed to public inspection; internal processes are kept from public; response to public guided by market dynamics 2. Accountability  Accountable to the public; transparency in transactions is expected  management accountable to owners of firms/corporations 3. Measure of performance  general public satisfaction is the gauge in the improvement in the quality of life  profit is bottomline 4. Nature of goods and services  open to all  availment based on ones ability to pay
  27. 27.  Bautista, Victoria. (Cited in Supplementary Readings.)  Caiden, Gerald. (Cited in the Supplementary Readings.)  Fry, Brian. “Five Great Issues in the Profession of public Administration” in Jack Rabin, W. Bartley Hildreth, Gerald J. Miller (eds). Handbook of Public Administration, New York: Marcel Dekker, 1989. Ocampo, Romeo. “Toward a Review of Research and knowledge in Philippines Public Administration” in Victoria A. Bautista, Ma. Concepcion P. Alfiler, Danilo R. Reyes, Proserpina D. Tapales (eds.) Introduction to Public Administration in the Philippines; A Reader, Quezon City: College of Public Administration, University of the Philippines, 1993. Rosen bloom, David H. and Deborah D. Goldman. “The Practice and Discipline of Public Administration: Competing Concerns” in David Rosen bloom (ed) Public Administration: Understanding Management, Politics and law in the Public Sector, New York: Random House, 1989.  Module Introduction to PA, Open University, UP, NCPAG, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines  Tenedero, Avelino P. “Theory and Practice of Public Administration in the Phils. Referrences

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