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League of Nations


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A History 12 lesson covering the League and the Treaty of Versailles. Some American political cartoons are included at the end.

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League of Nations

  1. 1. The League of Nations: J. Marshall 2013
  2. 2. Collective Security • New world order: “to make the world safe for democracy.” • 14 Points: “guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.” Wilson insisted the Covenant be in all five Paris peace treaties
  3. 3. 3 Goals • International cooperation: meet in an assembly • Arbitration: submit disputes to 3rd party • Collective security: sanctions vs. force
  4. 4. Article 10 Article 12 Article 16 to stop external aggression and respect territorial integrity and existing independence of all members NO INTERFERENCE if worry of war, members agree to arbitration OR enquiry of disputes + no war until 3 months after Council’s decision COOLING OFF war on one is war on all and all will cut off trade and commerce with offender. SANCTIONS AS ENFORCEMENT
  5. 5. MEMBERSHIP • 1919 Allies (incl. Japan) + Dominions and India = original members • 1926 + GeGermrmanyany (leaves 1933) • 1933 JaJappanan leaves • 1934 + UUSSRSSR (expelled 1940) • UUSSAA never joined
  6. 6. Successes Failures • Supervised Saar for 15 years • Managed Danzig for 15 years • 1921 settled Sweden/Finland dispute over Aland Islands • 1923 settled Greece/Italy dispute over Island of Corfu • 1925 settled possible Greece/Bulgaria war • Internation Labour Office improved child labour, min. wages, working hours • Mandatory powers usually unwilling to give up control/disallowed League inspection • World Court could be opted out • Countries left rather than comply • Collective security lacked “bite” Ex. Manchuria 1931 Abyssinia 1935
  7. 7. Reparation Adjustments Dawes Plan 1924 Young Plan 1930 5-point plan: •Allies out of Rhur •Germany to pedge govt $ to reparations •Payments start low but get higher •Payments still tied to German prosparity •Foreign loan to get Germany started Reduction •Total cut from $33 to $29 billion •Occupation of DMZ to end *** This was carried out and the Allies lost their pressure point with Germany ***In 1932 Germany defaulted; Hitler cancelled payments 1937.
  8. 8. • Russia no longer an ally • USA isolationist • British becoming revisionist • Keep Germany weak: 1923 occupation of Rhur • Maginot Line • Treaties of mutual assistance: a) Belgium 1920, b) Poland 1921, c) Little Entente: Czech. 1924 Rumania 1926 Yugoslav. 1927
  9. 9. Other efforts at peace • Locarno Pact, 1925 (guarantee borders) • Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928 (denounce war) • Washington Conf., 1921 (restrict size of navies) • London Conference, 1930 (…navies) • Geneva Disarm. Conf., 1932 (arms reductions) disarmament
  10. 10. The Arguments    
  11. 11.     3. Isolationism -The League suggested America was promising to  send its troops to settle every little conflict around  the world.  Americans had been appalled at the  carnage of the First World War.   -Should America be dragged into such disputes? = NO   
  12. 12. FlawsFailures USA did not ratify Paris Peace Unanimous was vote required to act Tradition of nationalism/self- interest or: old habits die hard Failure: Manchuria 1931 (Lytton Commission) Failure: Abyssinia 1935
  13. 13. The League in Cartoons    
  14. 14. 1. Why elephants? 2. Why the names? 3. What is being parodied?
  15. 15. What clues are given to identify the characters? What event, policy or movement is being illustrated? Is the cartoonist trying to sway your opinion? Is there any bias?
  16. 16. To what cliché is the cartoonist alluding? What does the cartoonist seem to be saying? What hints does the cartoonist give to ensure the audience gets the intended message?
  17. 17. This slide seems to contradict the tone of the others. How could that be?
  18. 18. Are symbols used? How is the world divided? What is the intended message? There are two clichés being parodied; can you identify them?
  19. 19. What does this cartoon suggest?
  20. 20. Where and when was this cartoon published?