Korean War

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A History 12 lesson from BC, Canada

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  • Eisenhower during a visit to the Korean War.
  • The USSR had entered into Korea to fight the Japanese prior to the
  • BOLB = veto…..THE USSR WAS BOYCOTTING THE COUNCIL BECAUSE THE R OF CHINA WAS RECOGNIZED NOT THE PRC!
  • UN Flag recognizes other UN participant combatants such as Australia 17,000 at the high end and Luxembourg with 44. 8 of the 13 averaged 1500 troops. Some countries, like Denmark, did not send combatants, but did send field hospitals.
  • Mac is watching the bombardment of Inchon on board USS Mt. McKinley. With the DPRK forces largely destroyed, troops of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) quietly crossed the Yalu River. Chinese foreign minister Zhou Enlai issued warnings via India's foreign minister, Krishna Menon, that an advance to the Yalu would force China into the war. When questioned about this threat by President Truman and Secretary of State Dean Acheson, MacArthur dismissed it completely. MacArthur's staff ignored battlefield evidence that PLA troops had entered North Korea in strength. The Chinese moved through the snowy hills, struck hard, and routed the UN forces, forcing them on a long retreat.[40] Calling the Chinese attack the beginning of "an entirely new war," MacArthur repeatedly requested authorization to strike Chinese bases in Manchuria, inside China. Truman was concerned that such actions would draw the Soviet Union into the conflict and risk nuclear war.
  • US Marines retreat from the Chosin Reservoir. Roads often choked as soldiers move north while others and refugees move south.
  • Note UN wreath of olive around maple leaf. Note also RCAF transport planes (CC-119) conducting resupply by parachute.
  • Note UN wreath of olive around maple leaf. Note also RCAF transport planes (CC-119) conducting resupply by parachute.
  • Ridgeline trenches of the US Marines under bombardment. After the Chinese fought from the Yalu to the 38th Parallel, the Allies dug in and the rest of the war was fought in the same general valleys. Most of the Canadian casualties occurred in an area that could be seen from one vantage point.
  • This is a 2PPCLI daylight patrol – most were night patrols. Recce and fighting.
  • USA 3%; Britain 6% casualty rate. When we look at the USA’s rate it is only about 3%, but that is because many Americans were in support roles away from the “sharp end.” Ex. Navy, aircraft maintenance, supply,etc.
  • A widely publicized Life Magazine photo of a child victim to a B-29 strategic bombing attack on North Korea. By the end of the war all strategic targets in North Korea had been destroyed by the USAF.
  • Cockpit view of F86 Sabre
  • The MiG was more heavily armed and armoured. The 10:1 win ratio in favour of USA pilots was due to training. In terms of training, the Russians were the best, then the Chinese, then the North Korean. There were many Russian aces in Korea: 21, 19, 17, planes etc.
  • The Soviet pilot flew planes with Chinese or N .Korean markings and wore same uniforms or civilian clothes. They had cards with common Korean words, but in the heat of battle often spoke Russian – the US pilots who intercepted Russian communication knew they were often engaging Soviet pilots. Photo shows Soviet ground crew servicing MiG 15.
  • The RCAF did fly transport aircraft in Korea.
  • 1. The world press at the signing. 2. People’s Liberation Army Commander signs. 3. General Clark signs for USA. 4. Premier Kim Il Sung signs for N. Korea.
  • The tunnels discovered in the mid 1970s could funnel a division (10,000) in an hour.
  • Korean War

    1. 1. Korean Police Action 1950-1953 J. Marshall 2009
    2. 2. Outline • • • • • • Background Crisis Bipolar World Ground War Air War Peace Talks
    3. 3. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks Background to the Korean War • Korea had been colonized by the Russians and after 1905, by the Japanese. • At Yalta, Stalin promised to attack Japan w/i 3 months of VE Day. The Soviets invaded August 9 – Japan surrendered August 15. • After the surrender, the Soviets occupied Korea’s north and the USA occupied the south. • A plebiscite was to determine the country’s future. The Red Army accepted the surrender of the Japanese in Manchuria, August, 19 45.
    4. 4. Political Timeline • Sep 9, 45: USA accepts surrender in Korea • Nov 14, 47: UN resolution to remove troops after elections • April 8, 48: Truman orders US troops out • Aug 15, 48: Republic of Korea created in popular elections Syngman Rhee, president • Sep 9, 48: Democratic People’s Republic of Korea claims all of Korea • Jun 25, 1950: North invades South.
    5. 5. 1. Background 2. Crisis June 25, 1950 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    6. 6. 1. Background 2. Crisis June 25, 1950 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    7. 7. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks UN Security Council Resolution 84 • • • • • July 7, 1950 To repel attack and restore peace and security Unified command under USA UN flag to be used Regular report to the Council In Favour Abstained Absent USA Egypt USSR UK India R of China Yugoslavia France Cuba Ecuador Norway
    8. 8. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks Bipolar World: Proxy War? NORTH SOUTH 780,ooo 590,ooo 260,ooo 480,ooo 26,ooo 63,ooo 27,ooo 42,ooo (13 Nations) These numbers represent total participants by nation; not all were deployed at the same time – Canadians, for example, were sent on one-year rotations.
    9. 9. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War ① 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks Action and Counter-Action The North Koreans invaded and almost drove the South into the sea at PUSAN. ② The UN (USA) landed at INCHON and drove almost to the Chinese border at the YALU River. ③ The Chinese invaded and drove the UN back to the 38TH PARALLEL. ④ STALEMATE and STATIC WAR with looooonnngg peace talks at PANMUNJOM. ⑤ Armistice with DMZ, but still at war today.
    10. 10. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks General Douglas MacArthur Hero of the Pacific Theatre Military chief in occupied Japan Leads daring Inchon invasion Wanted to cross the Yalu and attack PRC in Manchuria Truman told him to back-off. MacArthur often ignored his superiors (Truman).
    11. 11. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    12. 12. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks Kapyong
    13. 13. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks Kapyong
    14. 14. MacArthur is FIRED!
    15. 15. MacArthur is FIRED!
    16. 16. MacArthur is FIRED!
    17. 17. MacArthur is FIRED!
    18. 18. MacArthur is FIRED!
    19. 19. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World Round 3 = STATIC WAR 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    20. 20. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World Patrolling 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    21. 21. 1. Background 2. Crisis COLD 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    22. 22. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks 2 Nations with very different stories • Canada 4th largest @ 27,000 participants – 516 killed – 1042 wounded = 6% casualty rate • Turkey 7th largest @ 5,455 participants – 721 killed – 2111 wounded = 52% casualty rate
    23. 23. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    24. 24. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    25. 25. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War THE AIR WAR 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks New Technology: 1. Jet Fighters (prop driven airplanes still used) 2. Helicopters (very limited size/load capacity)
    26. 26. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War MiG vs Sabre 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    27. 27. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks MiG Alley: aerial dogfights The USAF won 10:1. This is attributed to training NOT superior aircraft. The USSR had pilots flying in Korea but NEVER admitted it.
    28. 28. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks Canada sent no jet fighter squadrons to Korea because none had yet been created – 22 Canadian fighter pilots flew on exchange with the USAF.
    29. 29. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World Sikorsky H19 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    30. 30. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War Bell 47 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    31. 31. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War Bell 47 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    32. 32. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks Negotiations • The war turned into a stalemate • The Chinese continued to have regular “harassing” attacks • The UN forces held their ground and patrolled to deny the Chinese strategic advantage in the valleys.
    33. 33. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War July 27, 1953: Armistice signed at Panmunjom 6. Peace Talks
    34. 34. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    35. 35. 1. Background 2. Crisis 3. Bipolar World 4. Ground War 5. Air War 6. Peace Talks
    36. 36. END

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