J417 Ck Grids


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Revision grids for J417 Modern World History

Paper 1 A971

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J417 Ck Grids

  1. 1. J417 OCR Modern World History B Paper I – A971 – International Relations 1919-39 REVISION GRID http://gcsehistory.wetpaint.com
  2. 2. J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39 <ul><li>Versailles (1919) [BRAT] </li></ul><ul><li>June 28 th 1919 at Versailles, just outside Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had to accept B lame for WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had to pay £6,600 million in R eparations </li></ul><ul><li>Germany forbidden to have an airforce, submarines, a navy of only 6 ships and an A rmy of 100,000 men. Conscription was banned </li></ul><ul><li>Germany lost T erritory – Rhineland, Alsace-Lorraine, Saar, Colonies to UK/FRA </li></ul><ul><li>David Lloyd-George (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted:- </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise between FRA & </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Expand British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Justice but not revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Make GER pay, but not at expense of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Got:- </li></ul><ul><li>GER colonies and smaller GER Navy </li></ul><ul><li>Said Treaty too harsh and would cause War in 25 years time </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- - What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles? - Why did the victors not get everything they wanted? - What were the immediate reactions to the peace settlements? - Could the Treaties be justified at the time? <ul><li>AUSTRIA - St Germain 10 th Sept 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations agreed, never set </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted size of AUS army </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantled AUS-HUG Empire </li></ul><ul><li>HUNGARY – Trianon 4 th June 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations but not paid </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantled AUS-HUG Empire </li></ul><ul><li>BULGARIA – Neuilly – 27 Nov 1920 Reparations and land </li></ul><ul><li>TURKEY – Sevres – 10 Aug 1920 Limited army </li></ul><ul><li>Lausanne 24 th July 1923 imposed on the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>George Clemenceau [FRA] </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted:- </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge on GER </li></ul><ul><li>Punish GER for death and destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Make GER pay reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Weaken GER militarily so FRA never under threat again </li></ul><ul><li>Got:- </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of Treaty – BRAT </li></ul><ul><li>But wanted Treaty to be harsher and GER to be split into smaller countries </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate reactions to the Treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Germany felt humiliated </li></ul><ul><li>Angry about tiny army </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of territory was unfair </li></ul><ul><li>Angry at Clause 231 re-blame </li></ul><ul><li>French people thought not harsh enough </li></ul><ul><li>British people thought differently to Lloyd George who was concerned </li></ul><ul><li>US Senate refused to sign Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson [USA] </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted:- </li></ul><ul><li>14 points </li></ul><ul><li>End to disputes – peace and LON </li></ul><ul><li>Self Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Got:- </li></ul><ul><li>LON </li></ul><ul><li>Self-determination for E.Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Some of 14 points did not make it </li></ul><ul><li>Senate refused to join LON so USA stayed out </li></ul>Big Question:- Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 fair?
  3. 3. J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39 <ul><li>AIMS / POWERS of the League </li></ul><ul><li>Based in Geneva, Switzerland – neutral country </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Security </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage Disarmament </li></ul><ul><li>Impose economic sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage trade </li></ul><ul><li>Using armed forces from the countries to settle disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Manchuria 1931-33 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan invaded Manchuria 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan refused to follow the LON’s instruction to leave </li></ul><ul><li>Lytton Commission spent a year fact-finding whilst the invasion continued </li></ul><ul><li>Japan just withdrew from the LON – demonstrated how weak the LON was </li></ul><ul><li>UK more concerned with Singapore to get involved </li></ul><ul><li>Abyssinia 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini (ITA) got ready to invade Abysinia – LON talked to him but he sent troops to Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini ignored LON who banned weapon sales and put sanctions on rubber and metal </li></ul><ul><li>UK and FRA secretly signed Hoare Laval pact to give Abyssinia to ITA after Abyssinia appealed to LON who did nothing </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- -What were the aims of the League? - How successful was the League in the 1920s? - How did weaknesses in the League’s organisation make failure inevitable? - How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult? - Why did the League fail over Manchuria and Abyssinia? <ul><li>SUCCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Silesia 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees in Turkey 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Greece and Bulgaria 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian aid – Third world, water and leprosy </li></ul><ul><li>AND FAILURES IN 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Vilna 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of the Ruhr 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Italy and Albania 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE and ORGANISATION </li></ul><ul><li>Not all nations were members </li></ul><ul><li>Had to rely on collective security </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by UK and FRA – Japan left </li></ul><ul><li>USA did not join </li></ul><ul><li>Too slow to take action </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions had to be unanimous – all members states had equal voting rights – fine when in agreement, but cumbersome when not </li></ul>Depression – made countries try to get more land and power. Not interested in committing money and troops to the LON. Article III- Disarmament -1925 appointed a commission to look at disarmament but it failed ILO – International Labor Organisations had some successes (see 1920s) Court of International Justice – limited powers and successes (see Successes/Failures) Big Question:- To what extent was the League of Nations a success?
  4. 4. J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39 <ul><li>Increasing militarism of GER, ITA and JAPAN </li></ul><ul><li>1931-33 Manchuria with JAPAN – wanted a larger Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – Hitler assumes power in GER – rebuilds militarily – against TOV </li></ul><ul><li>1935 – Abyssinia and MUSSOLINI ITA – who wanted a new Empire to match that of the Roman one </li></ul><ul><li>APPEASEMENT – see events from Munich Conference to Sept 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Some British people approved of Hitler’s policies </li></ul><ul><li>British people hoped a strong GER would stop growth of Communist Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Many people felt events in Europe were not Britain’s business </li></ul><ul><li>Many British people wanted peace </li></ul><ul><li>Many British agreed that TOV was unfair </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill one of the few to oppose Chamberlain </li></ul><ul><li>BUT caused Hitler to believe he could do anything, gave Britain time to rearm, gave UK the high moral ground </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- - What were the long-term consequences of Peace Treaties 1919-23? - What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s? - How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939? - Was the policy of Appeasement justified? - How important was the Nazi-Soviet pact? - Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in 1939? <ul><li>RHINELAND </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler invaded the Rhineland 7 MARCH 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Broke TOV </li></ul><ul><li>It was a bluff – GER army only had 22,000 men </li></ul><ul><li>Had orders to retreat if challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France did nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler got away with it! </li></ul><ul><li>NAZI-SOVIET PACT </li></ul><ul><li>Summer 1939 Hitler plans to take over Poland </li></ul><ul><li>First the Germans in Danzig demanded union, Hitler threatened war </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain promised the Poles UK would help out if attacked </li></ul><ul><li>August 1939 – Hitler made a secret pact with USSR – thought this would stop UK and FRA if GER attacked Poland and wanted to avoid war on two fronts. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin had to buy time to avoid war and build up armed forces. Had to choose between GER and UK/FRA – chose GER as USSR would share POLAND </li></ul><ul><li>SAAR </li></ul><ul><li>TOV had put the Saar under the control of the LON for 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>1935 inhabitants voted to return to GER </li></ul><ul><li>Many historians cite this as the first step to war </li></ul><ul><li>AUSTRIA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA & POLAND </li></ul><ul><li>1938 Hitler took over AUSTRIA after encouraging Austrian Nazis to demand union with GER </li></ul><ul><li>11 MARCH 1938 – Hitler invades </li></ul><ul><li>Broke TOV – UK and FRA did nothing </li></ul><ul><li>1938 Hitler tried to take over SUDETENLAND by encouraging Sudeten Nazis to demand union. Hitler made plans to invade CZECHOSLOVAKIA </li></ul><ul><li>MUNICH 29 SEPT 1938 – Neville Chamberlain appeased Hitler - Britain and France gave Sudetenland to GER </li></ul><ul><li>15 th March 1939 – Hitler’s troops marched into Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Sept 1939 Hitler invades POLAND </li></ul>Big Question:- Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?