French Revolution - Part I


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French Revolution - Part I

  1. 1. The French Revolution<br />liberté égalitéfraternité<br />
  2. 2. Part I: Revolt and Rights<br />Most important event in European history<br />Fall of absolutism (end of “l’ancien regime”)<br />Concept of right and left<br />King & followers = conservative right<br />Wanted distance = liberal left<br />Ideas can change reality<br />
  3. 3. Long Term Causes<br />Enlightenment ideals (liberty, equality, etc.)<br />Divided nation<br />Huge national debt (extravagance, wars, etc.)<br />
  4. 4. Long Term Causes (cont.)<br />Corruption<br />Population pressures<br />Society of Orders (The Three Estates)<br />
  5. 5. Short Term Causes<br />Seven Year’s War<br />War of American Independence<br />Harsh winter/food shortage<br />Estates General/ National Assembly<br />
  6. 6. The Three Estates<br />Since the Middle Ages, French society had been divided into three separate classes:<br />The First Estate = clergy<br />The Second Estate = nobility<br />The Third Estate = everyone else<br />
  7. 7. Three Estates (cont.)<br />Discontent grew in 1700s<br />First Estate  always exempt from taxes (resented)<br />Second Estate  many privileges & rights:<br />Land ownership<br />Hunting rights <br />Collect money from peasants<br />
  8. 8. Three Estates (cont.)<br />First & Second Estates held power<br />Third Estate = 97% of population<br />Substructure:<br />Bourgeoisie = middle class, usually educated – doctors, lawyers, merchants, manufacturers <br />Urban poor = laborers & artisans<br />Peasants = worked as farmers<br />
  9. 9. Third Estate<br />Peasants lived in poverty & burdened by:<br />Feudal dues to lords<br />Rent payments for land they worked <br />“Taille” (heaviest gov’t tax)<br />Tithes to the Catholic church (1/10 of income)<br />
  10. 10. Estates General<br />Louis XVI convened the Estates General<br />Representatives from each of the three estates – Louis hoped to gain approval to raise taxes<br />Met at Versailles in May 1789<br />
  11. 11. Estates General<br />Each estate had its own agenda & wanted to improve its position by taking power from the monarchy<br />Abbé de Sieyès – “What is the Third Estate?”<br />
  12. 12. What is the Third Estate?<br />1st. What is the third estate? Everything.<br />2nd. What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing.<br />3rd. What does it demand? To become something therein.<br />
  13. 13. Group Activity<br />Discuss as a group then write<br />(individually) your answers in the<br />journal section of your notebooks:<br />Who are the subjects of the political cartoon?<br />What symbolism is used?<br />To which Estate did the artist most likely belong? Why?<br />
  14. 14. National Assembly<br />Third Estate formed the National Assembly<br />Main goal = French Constitution<br />Louis closed down their meeting<br />
  15. 15. Tennis Court Oath<br />National Assembly met on a tennis court<br />Took the Tennis Court Oath – vowed to stay until they had written a Constitution<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Constitution<br />
  18. 18. National Assembly<br />Louis recognized the N. A.<br />Tremendous citizen support allowed the N. A. to assume power<br />By mid-summer 1789, rumors that royal troops would crush the N. A.<br />
  19. 19. National Assembly<br />
  20. 20. Revolution Begins<br />Louis XVI fired the beloved finance minister, Jacques Necker<br />July 14, 1789 – working people of Paris stormed the Bastille – a prison symbolic of despotism and torture<br />Initial goal = obtain weapons & gunpowder to defend the National Assembly…<br />
  21. 21. REVOLUTION!<br />
  22. 22. The Moderate Stage (1789-1792)<br />
  23. 23. Moderate Stage<br />Revolutionary mentality created – drives the revolutionaries forward<br />Two distinct stages: Moderate & Radical<br />July 14, 1789 – 800-900 Parisians, mostly women, went to the Bastille<br />
  24. 24. La Bastille<br />
  25. 25. La Bastille<br />Looking for weapons & gunpowder<br />Stormed the prison – 98 killed and 73 wounded<br />No weapons, but significant because La Bastille was a symbol of the Revolution<br />Louis’ reaction…<br />
  26. 26. RIEN<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Moderate Stage<br />To many – no turning back<br />Moderate Stage = Clash between 2nd Estate (nobility) and 3rd Estate (peasants) WHY??<br />
  29. 29. Moderate Stage (cont.)<br />Includes fall of Bastille and the general events that led to it<br />After the fall of the Bastille, many nobles fled & Louis withdrew troops<br />
  30. 30. Grievances<br />Peasantry believed Estates General would solve the problems they had outlined in a list of grievances called “cahiers de doléances”<br />Cahiers were ignored – Peasants attacked food convoys en route to Paris<br />
  31. 31. Grievances (cont.)<br />Peasants refuse to pay taxes, tithes, and manorial dues as they perceived their landlords to be responsible for their economic plight<br />End of July 1789 – peasants began to burn down the homes of their landlords & with them the records of their obligations<br />
  32. 32. Fear & Violence Spread<br />Rumors began – aristocracy to raise an army and kill the peasants – known as “The Great Fear”<br />The Fear – advantage to the reformers – gave National Assembly the opportunity to criticize aristocratic privilege <br />
  33. 33. End of Feudalism<br />August 4, 1789- French aristocrats surrendered privileges by decree<br />That night, the General Assembly drew up “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen”<br />Outlined man’s natural rights – symbolic of the new French Social Order<br />
  34. 34. March on Versailles<br />Louis XVI did not approve<br />October 5, 1789 – Parisians marched 12 miles to Versailles to protest the lack of bread<br />20,000 Paris Guards joined the mob<br />
  35. 35. March (cont.)<br />“We are going to cut off her head, tear out her heart, fry her liver, and that won’t be the end of it!”<br />
  36. 36. Promises, Promises<br />Louis promised bread & approved decrees/declaration and returned to Paris<br />Called “October Days”<br />Restored peasant’s faith<br />
  37. 37. Louis’ Fatal Error<br />June 20, 1791 – attempted to flee France<br />In contact with Leopold II – plan to raise army in Austria and crush the revolution<br />The Flight to Varennes…<br />
  38. 38. &quot;Arrest of Louis Capet at Varennes, June 22, 1791&quot;This print shows an angry crowd of fervent revolutionaries breaking down doors to arrest the King.”<br />
  39. 39. Flight to Varennes<br />Showed Louis could not be trusted<br />NA had wanted a Constitutional Monarchy – now, this was unlikely<br />
  40. 40. Reforms of the N. A.<br />Goal = dismantle the Ancién Regime<br />Six basic reforms to accomplish:<br />Abolish birthright – legalize equality<br />Declaration of the Rights of Man<br />Subordinated church to state<br />Constitution (1791)<br />More efficient government<br />Economic reforms<br />
  41. 41. Revolution Done??<br />End of Sept. 1791 – N. A.’s work done<br />Revolution over<br />1792 – drastic change – not desired or anticipated<br />Was this the end??<br />
  42. 42. Bell Ringer<br />What were some of the consequences of<br />King Louis XVI’s “Flight to Varennes”?<br />Discuss with Partner<br />30 Seconds<br />
  43. 43. The Radical Stage<br />1792-1794<br />
  44. 44. The Players…<br />
  45. 45. The Sans-Culottes<br />French for “without knee britches”<br />Term created by the nobility to describe the poorer members of the Third Estate because they wore long pants instead of the chic shorter culottes.<br />
  46. 46. Sans-Culottes (cont.)<br />Typical dress of a sans-culotte <br />Page 349 in your textbook<br />Red liberty cap<br />Pantaloons (long trousers)<br />Carmagnole (short-skirted coat)<br />Sabats (wooden shoes)<br />
  47. 47. Sans-Culottes (cont.)<br />They demanded that the revolutionary government immediately:<br />Increase wages<br />Fix prices<br />End food shortages<br />Punish hoarders<br />Deal with counterrevolutionaries<br />
  48. 48. Sans-Culottes (cont.)<br />Wanted laws to prevent extremes of both wealth & poverty<br />Ideal nation = one of small shopkeepers and farmers<br />
  49. 49. Revolutionary Drum<br />
  50. 50. Sans Culottes <br />
  51. 51. Arms for the Revolution<br />
  52. 52. The Jacobins<br />Predominately bourgeoisie<br />Well-organized & disciplined<br />Wanted a strong central government with Paris being the center of power<br />Supported temporary governmental controls to deal with the needs of the economy<br />
  53. 53. The Jacobins (cont.)<br />Combined with the sans-culottes, the Jacobins WERE the revolution<br />Above all else, the Jacobins unleashed extreme terror <br />
  54. 54. Girondins<br />This moderate faction of the Assembly drew its support from businessmen, merchants, and government officials<br />Their fall from popularity began with their refusal to join the more radical revolutionaries in overthrowing the monarchy<br />
  55. 55. La Montagne<br />The Mountain<br />A political group (members = Montagnards)<br />Sat on highest benches in NA<br />Often synonymous with Jacobins<br />Under the sway of such men as Marat, Danton, & Robespierre<br />
  56. 56. Marat<br />Jean Paul Marat<br />Swiss-born<br />Physician<br />“L’Ami du Peuple”<br />
  57. 57. L’Ami du Peuple<br />
  58. 58. The Death of Marat by David<br />
  59. 59. Charlotte Corday by Baudry<br />