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PRESENTING TOPIC:
ENTERIC FEVER
PRESENTED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR
AKRAM
&
ANAS BIN MUJEEB
Definition of Typhoid fever
 Acute enteric infectious disease
 Typhoid Fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the...
Causes of Typhoid fever
 FECAL-ORAL TRANSMISSION ROUTE
• The bacteria that cause typhoid fever spread through
contaminate...
Causes of Typhoid fever
Other ways typhoid fever can be contracted include:
 Using a toilet contaminated with bacteria an...
Affected Organs
 Abdominal Cavity
including:
 Liver
 Gallbladder
 Stomach
 Small intestine
 Large intestine
Symptoms
 Signs and symptoms are likely to develop gradually — often appearing one to three
weeks after exposure to the d...
Symptoms
Later illness:
• If you don't receive treatment, you may:
• Become delirious
• Lie motionless and exhausted with ...
Stages of Typhoid Fever
 Classically, the untreated typhoid fever is broken
down into four different stages, each lasting...
Stages of Typhoid Fever
 Stage Two:
 Continuing high fever
 Extremely distended
abdomen
 Considerable weight loss
 Br...
Stages of Typhoid Fever
 Stage Three:
 A number of complications can occur:
 Intestinal hemorrhage due to bleeding
 In...
RISK FACTOR
 If you live in a country where typhoid fever is rare, you're at
increased risk if you:
• Work in or travel t...
Complications
 Intestinal bleeding or holes
• The most serious complications of typhoid fever — intestinal
bleeding or ho...
Complications
 Other, less common complications include:
• Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
• Inflammation ...
Test & Diagnosis
 Diagnosis is made by blood, bone marrow, or
stool.
 The Widal test is commonly used to diagnose
Typhoi...
Exams and Tests
 An elevated white blood
cell count
 A blood culture the shows
the bacteria
 A stool culture
 An ELISA...
Antibody Testing
 Fluorescent Antibody
Test
 The test checks for
the antibody specific
to the S. Typhi
bacterium.
Antigen Testing
 Enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay
(ELISA)
 The blood test looks
for the antigen
specific to the typhoid...
Treatments and drugs
 Typhoid is treated with
an antibiotic that kills the
Salmonella bacteria.
 With antibiotics,
impro...
Treatments and drugs
 Commonly prescribed antibiotics:
• Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). In the United States, doctors
often presc...
Other treatments
 Other treatments include:
• Drinking fluids. This
helps prevent the
dehydration that results
from a pro...
Prevention
 Avoid risky foods or
drinks.
 Get vaccinated.
 Use only clean water.
 Avoid raw fruits and
vegetables.
 A...
Vaccinations
 Two vaccines are
available:
• One is injected in a single
dose at least one week
before travel.
• One is gi...
Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever
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Typhoid fever

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Typhoid fever

  1. 1. PRESENTING TOPIC: ENTERIC FEVER PRESENTED BY: MUHAMMAD TAHIR AKRAM & ANAS BIN MUJEEB
  2. 2. Definition of Typhoid fever  Acute enteric infectious disease  Typhoid Fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi.  Typhoid Fever is also known as enteric fever, bilious fever or Yellow Jack.  It is a gram-negative short bacillus that is motile due to its flagellum
  3. 3. Causes of Typhoid fever  FECAL-ORAL TRANSMISSION ROUTE • The bacteria that cause typhoid fever spread through contaminated food or water and occasionally through direct contact with someone who is infected. • You can also become infected by drinking water contaminated with the bacteria.  TYPHOID CARRIERS • Even after treatment with antibiotics, a small number of people who recover from typhoid fever continue to harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tracts or gallbladders, often for years. These people, called chronic carriers, shed the bacteria in their feces and are capable of infecting others, although they no longer have signs or symptoms of the disease themselves.
  4. 4. Causes of Typhoid fever Other ways typhoid fever can be contracted include:  Using a toilet contaminated with bacteria and touching your mouth before washing your hands  Eating seafood from a water source contaminated by infected faeces or urine  Eating raw vegetables that have been fertilised with human waste  Contaminated milk products  Having oral or anal sex with a person who's a carrier of salmonella typhi bacteria
  5. 5. Affected Organs  Abdominal Cavity including:  Liver  Gallbladder  Stomach  Small intestine  Large intestine
  6. 6. Symptoms  Signs and symptoms are likely to develop gradually — often appearing one to three weeks after exposure to the disease.  Symptoms include: Early illness: • Fever that starts low and increases daily, possibly reaching as high as 104.9 F (40.5 C) • Headache • Weakness and fatigue • Muscle aches • Sweating • Dry cough • Loss of appetite and weight loss • Abdominal pain • Diarrhea or constipation • Rash • Extremely swollen abdomen Typhoid Fever Rash
  7. 7. Symptoms Later illness: • If you don't receive treatment, you may: • Become delirious • Lie motionless and exhausted with your eyes half-closed in what's known as the typhoid state
  8. 8. Stages of Typhoid Fever  Classically, the untreated typhoid fever is broken down into four different stages, each lasting about a week.  Stage One:  A slowly rising temperature  Relative bradycardia (unusually slow heart rate), malaise (discomfort or uneasiness), headache and cough.  In ¼ of cases, epistaxis (acute hemorrhage from the nostril, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx) can occur.
  9. 9. Stages of Typhoid Fever  Stage Two:  Continuing high fever  Extremely distended abdomen  Considerable weight loss  Bradycardia continues  Dicrotic pulse wave  Delirium is frequent, frequently calm and sometimes agitated.
  10. 10. Stages of Typhoid Fever  Stage Three:  A number of complications can occur:  Intestinal hemorrhage due to bleeding  Intestinal perforation  Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)  Fever is still very high  Dehydration occurs and increases delirium  Lies motionless with eyes half-opened  Stage Four:  Defervescence (very high fever) commences that continues into the fourth week.
  11. 11. RISK FACTOR  If you live in a country where typhoid fever is rare, you're at increased risk if you: • Work in or travel to areas where typhoid fever is endemic • Work as a clinical microbiologist handling Salmonella typhi bacteria • Have close contact with someone who is infected or has recently been infected with typhoid fever • Drink water contaminated by sewage that contains S. typhi
  12. 12. Complications  Intestinal bleeding or holes • The most serious complications of typhoid fever — intestinal bleeding or holes (perforations) in the intestine — may develop in the third week of illness.  Death occurred from the development of other complications such as:  Intestinal perforation  Kidney Failure  Peritonitis  Infections of the spine  Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the spinal cord and brain (meningitis)  Inflammation of the heart muscle  Psychiatric problems
  13. 13. Complications  Other, less common complications include: • Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis) • Inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves (endocarditis) • Pneumonia • Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) • Kidney or bladder infections • Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis) • Psychiatric problems, such as delirium, hallucinations
  14. 14. Test & Diagnosis  Diagnosis is made by blood, bone marrow, or stool.  The Widal test is commonly used to diagnose Typhoid.  Looks for salmonella antibodies against antigens O- somatic and H-flagellar)
  15. 15. Exams and Tests  An elevated white blood cell count  A blood culture the shows the bacteria  A stool culture  An ELISA test to show the Vi antigen  A platelet count (low platelet count)  A fluorescent antibody study
  16. 16. Antibody Testing  Fluorescent Antibody Test  The test checks for the antibody specific to the S. Typhi bacterium.
  17. 17. Antigen Testing  Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  The blood test looks for the antigen specific to the typhoid bacteria.
  18. 18. Treatments and drugs  Typhoid is treated with an antibiotic that kills the Salmonella bacteria.  With antibiotics, improvement can be seen in 1-2 days and recovery in 7-10 days.  Intravenous fluids and electrolytes may also be given to patients.Typhoid Vaccine
  19. 19. Treatments and drugs  Commonly prescribed antibiotics: • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro). In the United States, doctors often prescribe this for nonpregnant adults. • Ceftriaxone (Rocephin). This injectable antibiotic is an alternative for people who may not be candidates for ciprofloxacin, such as children.
  20. 20. Other treatments  Other treatments include: • Drinking fluids. This helps prevent the dehydration that results from a prolonged fever and diarrhea. If you're severely dehydrated, you may need to receive fluids through a vein (intravenously). • Surgery. If your intestines become perforated, you'll need surgery to repair the hole
  21. 21. Prevention  Avoid risky foods or drinks.  Get vaccinated.  Use only clean water.  Avoid raw fruits and vegetables.  Avoid food and drinks from street vendor.  Wash your hands.
  22. 22. Vaccinations  Two vaccines are available: • One is injected in a single dose at least one week before travel. • One is given orally in four capsules, with one capsule to be taken every other day. Typhoid Vaccination

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