BY: SIR UMAIR RASHEED
BY : JAWAD ALI BSET01111037
SYED IMRAN ALI BSET01113054
SIDRA REHMAN BSET01111058
THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE.
• WHAT IS GPS?
• GPS ELEMENTS.
• HOW IT WORKS?
• GPS SIGNALS & FREQUENCIES.
• SOURCES OF GPS SIGNAL ERRORS.
• HOW TO IMPROVE THE ACCURACY OF GPS.
• APPLICATIONS(VEHICLE TRACKING).
• FUTURE OF GPS.
• Navigating by stars (requires clear nights and careful measurements)
most widely used for centuries
• The GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous
• GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense and was
originally run with 24 satellites.
• It became fully operational in 1995. “Bradford Parkinson”, “Roger L. Easton”, and
“Ivan A. Getting” are credited with inventing it.
WHAT IS GPS?
• GPS means
• A space-based satellite navigation system
provides location and time information in all weather.
• Maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible by anyone
with a GPS receiver.
• Official name : “Navigational Satellite Timing And Ranging Global Positioning
System” (NAVSTAR GPS)
• Consists of 30+ GPS satellites in medium Earth orbit (2000km - 35,000 km).
• Made up of two dozen satellites working in harmony are known as a satellite
• Mainly used for navigation, map-making and surveying.
Official logo for
1. Space segment.
2. Control segment.
3. User segment.
Space Segment Control Segment
• GPS satellites fly in circular orbits at an altitude of 20,200 km and with a
period of 12 hours.
• Powered by solar cells.
• The satellites continuously orient themselves to point their solar panels toward the sun and their
antenna toward the earth.
• Orbital planes are centered on the Earth.
• Orbits are designed so that, at least, six satellites are always within line of sight from any location
on the planet.
• The CS consists of 3 entities:
• Master Control System
• Monitor Stations
• Ground Antennas
MASTER CONTROL STATION
The master control station, located at Falcon Air Force Base in Colorado
Responsible for overall management of the remote monitoring and
Check-up is performed twice a day, by each of 6 stations, as the satellites
complete their journeys around the earth.
Can reposition satellites to maintain an optimal GPS constellation.
Falcon Air Force Base in Colorado,
Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean,
Diego Garcia Atoll in the Indian Ocean,
Kwajalein Island in the South Pacific Ocean.
• Checks the exact altitude, position, speed, and overall
health of the orbiting satellites.
• The control segment ensures that the GPS satellite orbits
and clocks remain within acceptable limits.
• A station can track up to 11 satellites at a time.
• This "check-up" is performed twice a day, by each
• Ground antennas monitor and track the satellites from horizon to
• They also transmit correction information to individual satellites.
• Communicate with the GPS satellites for command and control
• GPS receivers are generally composed of
1. an antenna( tuned to the frequencies transmitted by the satellites),
2. receiver-processors, and
3. highly-stable clock( commonly a crystal oscillator).
• They can also include a display for showing location and speed information to the user.
• A receiver is often described by its number of channels ( this signifies how many satellites it can
• As of recent, receivers usually have between twelve and twenty channels.
You can find one’s location if you know its distance from other,
• Things which need to be determined:
• Current Locations of GPS Satellites.
• The Distance Between Receiver’s Position and the GPS Satellites.
CURRENT LOCATIONS OF GPS SATELLITES
• GPS satellites are orbiting the earth at an altitude of 11,000 miles.
• The orbits, and the locations of the satellites, are known in
• GPS receivers store this orbit information for all of the GPS
satellites in an ALMANAC*.
* The Almanac is a file which contains positional information for all of the GPS satellites
DISTANCE B/W RECEIVER’S POSITION AND GPS SATELLITES.
A GPS receiver can tell its own position by using the position data of itself, and compares
that data with 3 or more GPS satellites.
To get the distance to each satellite,
• By measuring the amount of time taken by radio signal (the GPS signal) to travel from the
satellite to the receiver.
• Radio waves travel at the speed of light, i.e. about 186,000 miles per second.
• The distance from the satellite to the receiver can be determined by the formula “distance =
speed x time”.
• Hence receiver’s position find out using trilateration.
•Distance measurements from two satellites limits
our location to the intersection of two spheres,
which is a circle.
location to just
which point is
• The position calculated by a GPS receiver relies on three accurate
• Current time
• Position of the satellite
• Time delay for the signal
• The GPS signal in space will provide a "worst case" accuracy of
7.8 meters at a 95% confidence level.
• GPS time is accurate to about 14 nanoseconds.
• Higher accuracy is available today by using GPS in combination with
augmentation systems. These enable real-time positioning to within a
• The C/A code is transmitted on the L1 frequency.
• The Precision-code is transmitted on both the L1 and L2 frequencies.
• L3 is used by the Defense Support Program to signal detection of missile
launches, nuclear detonations, and other applications.
• L4 is used for additional correction to the part of the atmosphere that is
ionized by solar radiation.
• L5 is used as a civilian safety-of-life signal.
• Launched in 2005, L2C is civilian GPS signal, designed specifically to meet
• L2C enables ionospheric correction, a technique that boosts accuracy.
• Delivers faster signal acquisition, enhanced reliability, and greater
• L2C broadcasts at a higher effective power making it easier to receive
under trees and even indoors.
SOURCES OF GPS SIGNAL ERRORS.
• Different errors can cause a deviation of +/- 50 -100 meters from the actual GPS receiver
position which are :
• 1.Satellite clock :
• One nano second of inaccuracy in a satellite clock results in about 30 cm
• (1 foot) of error in measuring the distance to that satellite.
• 2.Receiver clock :
• Any error in the receiver clock causes inaccuracy in distance measurement.
However it is not practical to equip receiver with very accurate atomic clocks. Atomic clocks weigh more
than 20 kgs, cost about US$ 50,000.
3.GPS Jamming :
• It limits the effectiveness of the GPS signal.
• GPS jammer is a low cost device to temporarily disable the reception of the civilian coarse
acquisition (C/A) code.
3. Atmospheric errors
• Speed of GPS signal is affected by ionosphere &
• Which cause a deviation of 0 to 30 m. from the
actual position of receiver.
4.Multi-path error :
• Bouncing of GPS signal due to a reflecting surface before reaching to receiver antenna.
• Which cause a deviation of 0 to 1 m. from the actual position of receiver.
METHODS OF IMPROVING ACCURACY.
• Precision monitoring
–Dual Frequency Monitoring
–Carrier-Phase Enhancement (CPGPS)
–Relative Kinematic Positioning (RKP)
A. Dual Frequency Monitoring.
• Refers to systems that can compare two or more signals.
• These two frequencies are affected in two different ways.
• After monitoring these signals, it’s possible to calculate what the error is and
• Receivers that have the correct decryption key can decode the P(Y)-code
transmitted on signals to measure the error.
B. Carrier-Phase Enhancement (CPGPS)
• CPGPS uses the L1 carrier wave, which has a period 1000 times smaller than that
of the C/A bit period, to act as an additional clock signal and resolve uncertainty.
• The phase difference error in the normal GPS amounts to between 2 and 3
meters (6 to 10 ft) of ambiguity.
• CPGPS works to within 1% of perfect transition to reduce the error to 3
centimeters (1 inch) of ambiguity.
• By eliminating this source of error, CPGPS coupled with DGPS normally realizes
between 20 and 30 centimeters (8 to 12 inches) of absolute accuracy.
C. Relative Kinematic Positioning (RKP)
• Determination of range signal can be resolved to an accuracy of less than 10
centimeters (4 in).
• Resolves the number of cycles in which the signal is transmitted and received by the
• Accomplished by using a combination of DGPS correction data, transmitting GPS signal
phase information and ambiguity resolution techniques via statistical tests — possibly
with processing in real-time.
• Relies on external information being integrated into the calculation process.
• Some augmentation systems transmit additional information about sources of error.
• Some provide direct measurements of how much the signal was off in the past
• Another group could provide additional navigational or vehicle information to be integrated
in the calculation process.
Nationwide Differential GPS System (NDGPS)
• Ground-based augmentation system that provides increased accuracy and integrity of GPS
information to users on U.S. land and waterways.
• The system consists of the Maritime Differential GPS System operated by the U.S. Coast
Guard and an inland component funded by the Department of Transportation.
Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)
• Satellite-based augmentation system operated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),
supports aircraft navigation across North America.
• Global Differential GPS (GDGPS)
• High accuracy GPS augmentation system, developed by the NASA Jet
Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to support the real-time positioning, timing, and
determination requirements of NASA science missions.
• Future NASA plans include using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
(TDRSS) to transmit via satellite a real-time differential correction message.
• GPS can provide worldwide, three-dimensional positions, 24 hours a day, in
any type of weather.
• But, There must be a relatively clear "line of sight" between the GPS
antenna and four or more satellites.
• Hence it becomes too difficult to ensure reliable positioning. These
difficulties are particularly prevalent in urban areas.
• The GPS signal may bounce off nearby objects causing another problem
called multi path interference.
Surveying: Surveyors use absolute locations
to make maps and determine property
Telematics: GPS technology integrated with
computers and mobile communications
technology in automotive navigation systems.
• GPS integrated into fighters, tankers, helicopters, ships, submarines,
tanks, jeeps, and soldiers' equipment.
• Target tracking.
• Search and rescue.
• GPS, a satellite based navigation system, thus can be used to determine the position of
an object on earth.
• Its application field is vast and new applications will continue to be created as the
• GPS can also interfaced with other similar projects such EU’s GALILEO to account for
• Thus, the GPS constellation, like manmade stars in the sky, can be used for guiding and