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Global Navigation Satellite Systems 
(GNSS) 
Dr. Mahesh K. Jat 
Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur
Introduction 
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) involve satellites, ground stations 
and user equipment to determine positions around the world and are now 
used across many areas of society 
• GNSS GPS (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Galileo(Europe), Augmentation 
Systems (SBAS, GBAS), IRNS (India), QuasiZenth (Japan) 
• Fuelling growth during the next decade will be next generation GNSS 
that are currently being developed.
Introduction of gps   global navigation satellite systems
Global Navigation Satellite Systems 
(GNSS) 
• NAVSTAR 
– USA 
• GLONASS 
– Russians 
• Galileo 
– Europeans
GLONASS from Russia 
• GLONASS-M (L1 and L2 bands ) satellites with an improved 7-year design 
lifetime. 
• 2007 to 2008 planned to launch GLONASS-K satellites with improved 
performance, also transmit a third civil signal (L3). 
• Stated intention is to achieve a full 24-satellite constellation transmitting 
two civil signals by 2010. 
• Full constellation is planned to be broadcasting three sets of civil signals 
by 2012. 
• Indian Government announced at the end of 2004 that it would be 
contributing funds to assist Russia to revitalize GLONASS.
Galileo from the European Union 
• Constellation of 30 satellites, increased altitude (approximately 3000km higher 
than GPS) which will enable better signal availability at high latitudes. 
• Exact signal structure is still liable to change, 
• Galileo satellites broadcast signals compatible with the L1(E5a E5b) and L5 GPS 
signals. Galileo will also broadcast in a third frequency band at E6; which is not 
at the same frequency as L2/L2C of GPS.

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Introduction of gps global navigation satellite systems

  • 1. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Dr. Mahesh K. Jat Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur
  • 2. Introduction Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) involve satellites, ground stations and user equipment to determine positions around the world and are now used across many areas of society • GNSS GPS (USA), GLONASS (Russia), Galileo(Europe), Augmentation Systems (SBAS, GBAS), IRNS (India), QuasiZenth (Japan) • Fuelling growth during the next decade will be next generation GNSS that are currently being developed.
  • 4. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) • NAVSTAR – USA • GLONASS – Russians • Galileo – Europeans
  • 5. GLONASS from Russia • GLONASS-M (L1 and L2 bands ) satellites with an improved 7-year design lifetime. • 2007 to 2008 planned to launch GLONASS-K satellites with improved performance, also transmit a third civil signal (L3). • Stated intention is to achieve a full 24-satellite constellation transmitting two civil signals by 2010. • Full constellation is planned to be broadcasting three sets of civil signals by 2012. • Indian Government announced at the end of 2004 that it would be contributing funds to assist Russia to revitalize GLONASS.
  • 6. Galileo from the European Union • Constellation of 30 satellites, increased altitude (approximately 3000km higher than GPS) which will enable better signal availability at high latitudes. • Exact signal structure is still liable to change, • Galileo satellites broadcast signals compatible with the L1(E5a E5b) and L5 GPS signals. Galileo will also broadcast in a third frequency band at E6; which is not at the same frequency as L2/L2C of GPS.
  • 7. • Current plan is to offer 5 levels of service: o Open Service uses the basic signals, free-to-air to the public with performance similar to GPS and GLONASS. o Safety of Life Service allows similar accuracy as the Open Service but with increased guarantees of the service, including improved integrity monitoring to warn users of any problems. o Public Regulated Service is aimed at public authorities providing civil protection and security (eg police), with encrypted access for users requiring a high level of performance and protection against interference or jamming. o Search and Rescue Service is designed to enhance current space-based services (such as COSPAS/SARSAT) by improving the time taken to respond to alert messages from distress beacons. o Commercial Service allows for tailored solutions for specific applications based on supplying better accuracy, improved service guarantees and higher data rates.
  • 8. GNSS Signal Spectrum Galileo E5/A Lower L-Band Upper L-Band C-Band GPS L2 1151MHz 1300MHz Galileo E5/B 1164MHz 1188MHz 1215MHz Glonass G2 1237MHz 1239MHz 1260MHz 1261MHz Galileo E6 1559MHz 06/09/07 Veena G Dikshit, Sc 'E' , ADE, Bangalore ARNS ARNS 1610MHz GPS L1 1563MHz 1587MHz Glonass G2 5010MHz 5030MHz 1591MHz 1254MHz 1258MHz 1593MHz ARNS RNSS RNSS* RNSS* 960MHz RNSS 5250MHz RNSS Galileo C1 Galileo E3 GPS L5 RNSS* shared with other services 1214MHz Galileo E5/A or E5/B frequency band options Galileo E1 Galileo E2 Galileo E4
  • 9. BENEFITS OF GNSS • Availability of Signals • Extra satellites improve continuity • Extra satellites and signals can improve accuracy • Extra satellites and signals can improve efficiency • Extra satellites and signals can improve availability (of satellites at a particular location) • Extra satellites and signals can improve reliability 06/09/07 Veena G Dikshit, Sc 'E' , ADE, Bangalore
  • 10. What is the GPS? • Orbiting navigational satellites – Transmit position and time data • Handheld receivers calculate – latitude – longitude – altitude – velocity • Developed by Department of Defense
  • 11. The Global Positioning System • Baseline 24 satellite constellation in medium earth orbit • Global coverage, 24 hours a day, all weather conditions • Satellites broadcast precise time and orbit information on L-band radio frequencies • Two types of signals: – Standard (free of direct user fees) – Precise (U.S. and Allied military) • Three segments: – Space – Ground control – User equipment
  • 12. History of the GPS • 1969—Defense Navigation Satellite System (DNSS) formed • 1973—NAVSTAR Global Positioning System developed • 1978—first 4 satellites launched Delta rocket launch
  • 13. History of the GPS • 1993—24th satellite launched; initial operational capability • 1995—full operational capability • May 2000—Military accuracy available to all users
  • 17. Three Segments of the GPS Space Segment Control Segment User Segment Monitor Stations Ground Antennas Master Station
  • 19. Components of the System Space segment • 24 satellite vehicles • Six orbital planes – Inclined 55o with respect to equator – Orbits separated by 60o • 20,200 km elevation above Earth • Orbital period of 11 hr 55 min • Five to eight satellites visible from any point on Earth Block I Satellite Vehicle
  • 20. GPS Satellite Vehicle • Four atomic clocks • Three nickel-cadmium batteries • Two solar panels – Battery charging – Power generation – 1136 watts • S band antenna—satellite control • 12 element L band antenna—user communication Block IIF satellite vehicle (fourth generation)
  • 21. GPS Satellite Vehicle • Weight – 2370 pounds • Height – 16.25 feet • Width – 38.025 feet including wing span • Design life—10 years Block IIR satellite vehicle assembly at Lockheed Martin, Valley Forge, PA
  • 22. GPS Space Segment • The space segments nominally consists of 24 satellites, currently: – 28 (24+4 spares) active GPS satellites (26 Block II, 2 Block IIR) – Constellation design: at least 4 satellites in view from any location at any time to allow navigation (solution for 3 position + 1 station clock unknowns) – “Right Time, Right Place, Any Time, Any Place” • GPS Orbit characteristics: – Semi-Major Axis (Radius): 26,600 km – Orbital Period : 11 h 58 min – Orbit Inclination: 55 degrees – Number of Orbit Planes: 6 (60 degree spacing) – Number of Satellites: 24 (4 spares) – Approximate Mass: 815 kg, 7.5 year lifespan – Data Rate (message): 50 bit/sec – PRN (Pseudo-Random Noise) Codes: Satellite-dependent Codes – Transmit, Frequencies L-Band L1: 1575.42 MHtz L2: 1227.60 MHtz
  • 23. GPS Space Segment Currently: 26 Block II, 2 Block IIR, no Block I satellites are active. Picture of a Block II Satellite
  • 24. Components of the System User segment • GPS antennas & receiver/processors • Position • Velocity • Precise timing • Used by – Aircraft – Ground vehicles – Ships – Individuals
  • 25. Components of the System Ground control segment • Master control station – Schreiver AFB, Colorado • Five monitor stations • Three ground antennas • Backup control system
  • 26. GPS Control Segment US Air Force and NIMA Control and Tracking Stations MCS Colorado Springs Hawaii Hermitage Ouito Buenos Aires US NIMA Tracking Sites Diego Garcia Ascension Bahrain Kwajalein Smithfield US Airforce Tracking Sites US Airforce Upload Sites See also map at <http://164.214.2.59/GandG/sathtml> MCS – Master Control Station
  • 28. GPS Ground Control Stations
  • 31. GPS involves 5 Basic Steps • Trilateration – Intersection of spheres • SV Ranging – Determining distance from SV • Timing – Why consistent, accurate clocks are required • Positioning – Knowing where SV is in space • Correction of errors – Correcting for ionospheric and tropospheric delays
  • 32. Accurate Timing is the Key • SVs have highly accurate atomic clocks • Receivers have less accurate clocks • Measurements made using “nanoseconds” – 1 nanosecond = 1 billionth of a second • 1/100th of a second error could introduce error of 1,860 miles • Discrepancy between satellite and receiver clocks must be resolved • Fourth satellite is required to solve the 4 unknowns (X, Y, Z and receiver clock error)
  • 33. Satellite Positioning • Also required in the equation to solve the 4 unknowns is the actual location of the satellite. • SV are in relatively stable orbits and constantly monitored on the ground • SV position is broadcast in the “ephemeris” data streamed down to receiver
  • 34. How does GPS work? • Satellite ranging – Satellite locations – Satellite to user distance – Need four satellites to determine position • Distance measurement – Radio signal traveling at speed of light – Measure time from satellite to user • Low-tech simulation
  • 35. How does GPS work? Pseudo-Random Code • Complex signal • Unique to each satellite • All satellites use same frequency • “Amplified” by information theory • Economical
  • 36. Signal Structure • Each satellite transmits its own unique code • Two frequencies used – L1 Carrier 1575.42 MHz – L2 Carrier 1227.60 MHz • Codes – CA Code use L1 (civilian code) – P (Y) Code use L1 & L2 (military code)
  • 37. How GPS works? • Range from each satellite calculated range = time delay X speed of light • Technique called trilateration is used to determine you position or “fix” – Intersection of spheres • At least 3 satellites required for 2D fix • However, 4 satellites should always be used – The 4th satellite used to compensate for inaccurate clock in GPS receivers – Yields much better accuracy and provides 3D fix
  • 38. How does GPS work? • Distance to a satellite is determined by measuring how long a radio signal takes to reach us from that satellite. • To make the measurement we assume that both the satellite and our receiver are generating the same pseudo-random codes at exactly the same time. • By comparing how late the satellite's pseudo-random code appears compared to our receiver's code, we determine how long it took to reach us. • Multiply that travel time by the speed of light and you've got distance. • High-tech simulation
  • 39. How does GPS work? • Accurate timing is the key to measuring distance to satellites. • Satellites are accurate because they have four atomic clocks ($100,000 each) on board. • Receiver clocks don't have to be too accurate because an extra satellite range measurement can remove errors.
  • 40. How does GPS work? • To use the satellites as references for range measurements we need to know exactly where they are. • GPS satellites are so high up their orbits are very predictable. • All GPS receivers have an almanac programmed into their computers that tells them where in the sky each satellite is, moment by moment. • Minor variations in their orbits are measured by the Department of Defense. • The error information is sent to the satellites, to be transmitted along with the timing signals.
  • 41. Position is Based on Time Signal leaves satellite at time “T” T + 3 T Signal is picked up by the receiver at time “T + 3” Distance between satellite and receiver = “3 times the speed of light”
  • 42. Pseudo Random Noise Code Receiver PRN Satellite PRN Time Difference
  • 43. What Time is It? Zulu Time Universal Coordinated Time GPS Time + 13* Local Time: AM and PM (adjusted for local time zone) Military Time Greenwich Mean Time (local time on a 24 hour clock) * GPS Time is ahead of UTC by approximately 13 seconds
  • 44. Signal From One Satellite The receiver is somewhere on this sphere.
  • 45. Signals From Two Satellites
  • 46. Three Satellites (2D Positioning)
  • 48. Three Dimensional (3D) Positioning
  • 50. System Performance • Standard Positioning System – 100 meters horizontal accuracy – 156 meters vertical accuracy – Designed for civilian use – No user fee or restrictions • Precise Positioning System – 22 meters horizontal accuracy – 27.7 meters vertical accuracy – Designed for military use
  • 51. System Performance Selective availability • Intentional degradation of signal • Controls availability of system’s full capabilities • Set to zero May 2000 • Reasons – Enhanced 911 service – Car navigation – Adoption of GPS time standard – Recreation
  • 52. System Performance • The earth's ionosphere and atmosphere cause delays in the GPS signal that translate into position errors. • Some errors can be factored out using mathematics and modeling. • The configuration of the satellites in the sky can magnify other errors. • Differential GPS can reduce errors.
  • 53. Differential Correction • Technique used to correct some of these errors • Referred to as “differential GPS” or DGPS • In DGPS, two GPS receivers are used • One receiver is located at an accurately surveyed point referred to as the “base station” • A correction is calculated by comparing the known location to the location determined by the GPS satellites • The correction is then applied to the other receiver’s (known as the “rover”) calculated position
  • 54. DGPS Methods • Post-processing – Corrections performed after the data is collected – Special software required • Real-time – Corrections are performed while the data is being collected – Need special equipment to receive the DGPS signal
  • 55. Wide Area Augmentation System - WAAS • New “real-time” DGPS • Satellite based • FAA initiative….now fully operational • Series of ~25 ground reference stations relay info to master control station • Master control station sends correction info to WAAS satellite – http://gps.faa.gov/programs/waas/howitworks.htm
  • 56. GPS Accuracy Comparison Some common GPS devices used by FWS: GPS Device Autonomous WAAS DGPS Real-time DGPS Post-process DGPS Garmin GPSMap 76s ~ 10 - 15 ~3 3 1 - 3 Rockwell – PLGR Federal Users Only ~ 8 - 15 NA 3 NA Trimble - GeoXT ~ 10 ~3 1-3 Sub-meter Accuracy given in meters
  • 57. GPS Accuracy Issues • Ways to improve the accuracy of your GPS collected data – Standardize data collection methods – Establish protocols for your applications – Employ averaging techniques – Perform mission planning – Utilize DGPS – Understand how the selection of datums and coordinate systems affect accuracy • GPS data collected in wrong datum can introduce ~200 meters of error into your GIS!
  • 58. Application of GPS Technology • Location - determining a basic position • Navigation - getting from one location to another • Tracking - monitoring the movement of people and things • Mapping - creating maps of the world • Timing - bringing precise timing to the world
  • 60. Application of GPS Technology • Private and recreation – Traveling by car – Hiking, climbing, biking – Vehicle control • Mapping, survey, geology • English Channel Tunnel • Agriculture • Aviation – General and commercial – Spacecraft • Maritime
  • 62. Handheld GPS Receivers • Garmin eTrex – ~$100 • Garmin-12 – ~$150 • Casio GPS wristwatch – ~$300 • The GPS Store
  • 63. Some issues to consider when purchasing GPS devices • What is the accuracy level required for your application? (10 meters or sub-meter) • How is unit going to be used in field? – External antenna required, in heavy canopy, ease of use, durability, data dictionary capability, waterproof… • Cost…… from $100 to $12K • Staff expertise..training..support network • How well does unit interface with GIS?
  • 64. Latest Technology Mobile mapping software for WindowsCE devices TerraSync (Trimble) ArcPad (ESRI) Multi-path rejection technology Trimble GeoXT Bluetooth Allows for cable free operation
  • 65. ArcPad Software Bring GIS data into the field! Custom forms for data collection Integrate GPS with GIS
  • 66. References Websites • GPS Links from IGS: http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/links.html • U.S. Coast Guard Navigation Information Center: http://www.navcen.uscg.mil • U.S. Department of Transportation: http://www.dot.gov • NIMA Satellite Geodesy: http://164.214.2.59/GandG/sathtml/ • UNAVCO: http://www.unavco.ucar.edu/ • GPS Environmental & Earth Science Information System: http://genesis/html/index.shtml • GPS Joint Program Office http://gps.laafb.af.mil/ Books: • Institute of Navigation, Global Positioning System, Vol. I, Papers published in NAVIGATION, ISBN: 0-936406-00-3, 1980 (Spilker, Van Dierendonck, etc. • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, Volume I & II, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics ISBN or Order Number: 1- 56347-107-8 , 1996 • Kleusberg, A. P. Teunissen,ed. GPS for Geodesy, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Springer- Verlag, ISBN 3-540-60785-4, 1996 • Springer, T.A., “Modeling and Validating Orbits and Clocks Using the Global Positioning System”, Doctoral Thesis, University of Bern, Switzerland, November 1999
  • 67. 67 U.S. Augmentations Nationwide Differential GPS Wide Area Augmentation System Continuously Operating Reference Stations Local Area Augmentation System
  • 68. Galileo EU/ESA GPS USA GLONASS Russia Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS Accuracy 10m or better Compass China Planned India, Japan, Korea
  • 69. Space Based Augmentation Systems Improves GNSS accuracy to 3 metres
  • 70. GNSS Errors Canyon Effect – 1 metre Ionospheric & Tropospheric diffraction 10 + 1 metres Part copied from http://www.kowoma.de/en/gps/errors.htm Timimg errors 4m – Rounding errors 1m Geometry up to 100m Orbits up to 5m