Anth1 Ethnicity B


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Anth1 Ethnicity B

  1. 1. Race in Cultures where Diversity is Minimized <ul><ul><li>Diversity in Japan is also erased by dominant majority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of Japan’s population minorities of various sorts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrinsic racism – belief that perceived racial difference is a sufficient reason to value one person less than another </li></ul></ul>American culture ignores considerable diversity as it socially constructs race within U.S.
  2. 2. Race in Japan <ul><li>Valued group in Japan is majority (“pure”) Japanese, who are believed to share “the same blood” </li></ul><ul><li>80-90% of population </li></ul>From Japanese wedding designer Yumi Katsura’s 2006 Collection; Credit:
  3. 3. Race in Japan <ul><ul><li>Japanese culture regards certain ethnic groups as having a biological basis, when there is no evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burakumin or &quot;mura-no-mono&quot; (&quot;village people&quot;) – descendants of a low-status social class; genetically indistinguishable from the dominant population; treated as a different race </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination against Burakumin strikingly similar to discrimination that blacks faced in U.S. or “low castes” in South Asia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Majority Japanese (~110 million) define themselves by opposition to others </li></ul>
  4. 4. Minority Ethnic Groups of Japan <ul><li>Ainu (15k) </li></ul><ul><li>Kikai (15k) </li></ul><ul><li>Korean (670k) </li></ul><ul><li>Kunigami (5k) </li></ul><ul><li>Miyako (68k) </li></ul><ul><li>Okinawan (2 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Yaeyama (48k) </li></ul>~1945 Elderly Okinawan woman getting cigarette From soldier; Photo:
  5. 5. Cultures that maximize Racial Diversity: Race in Brazil <ul><li>The Brazilian construction of race is attuned to relatively slight phenotypic differences </li></ul><ul><li>~190 Ethnic groups with different languages in Brazil </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fluid Brazilian Race & Ethnicity <ul><ul><li>Phenotype – organism’s evident traits, including skin color, hair form, facial features, and eye color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genotype - genetic differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 500 distinct racial labels reported </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Brazilian Race & Ethnicity <ul><ul><li>Individual’s racial classification may change due to achieved status, developmental biological changes, and other irregular factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No hypodescent rule ever developed in Brazil to seperate whites and blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brazilian “race” far more flexible </li></ul>
  8. 8. Traditional Racial Laws of Nepal <ul><li>Racial hierarchy based on Hindu Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearers of the holy cord (Brahman, Thakuri, Chetri, highest Newar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-enslavable alcohol drinkers (Magar, Gurung, some Newar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslavable alcohol drinkers (Tibetans, small tribes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impure but touchable (Newar butchers, musicians, washerwomen, Muslims, & Europeans!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Untouchable ( Hindu blacksmiths, tanners, shoemakers, tailors) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hindu Social Hierarchies
  10. 10. Ethnic Groups and Nationalities <ul><li>Nation now similar to a “ state” – independent, centrally organized political unit </li></ul><ul><li>Migration, conquest, and colonialism led most nation-states to become ethnically heterogeneous. </li></ul><ul><li>Nation once synonymous with “tribe” or “ethnic group” as in “Navajo nation” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethnic Groups, Nations, and Nationalities <ul><li>Nation-State: stratified society with formal, central government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration, conquest, and colonialism led most nation-states not to be ethnically homogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nation : a large aggregate of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular country or territory </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nations as “Imagined Communities ” <ul><li>Nation - a social construction created by print media Since rise of printing technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Use of vernacular spread languages </li></ul><ul><li>regardless of the actual inequality, the nation is conceived as a deep, horizontal community of neighbors. </li></ul>1983, Benedict Anderson
  13. 13. Moving across Nations: Diasporas <ul><li>Diasporas – dispersed populations spread out from a common center or homeland </li></ul>Bantu speaking pop’n expansions From ~8kya to 1kya
  14. 14. Assimilation <ul><ul><li>“ Melting pot” model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates into the dominant culture to point where it becomes a subculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Hegemony - Ruling class creates ideologies that others internalize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Time is Money” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You can never be too rich or too thin” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pull yourself up by your bootstraps” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>When minority adopts the patterns and culture of a host culture </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Plural Society <ul><ul><li>Barth believed ethnic boundaries are most stable and enduring when groups occupy different ecological niches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barth shifted analytic focus from specific cultural practices and values to relations between ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A society combining ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization, and economic interdependence </li></ul>
  16. 16. Multiculturalism and Ethnic Identity <ul><ul><li>Number and size of ethnic groups grew dramatically in recent years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism seeks ways for people to understand and interact with a respect for differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism – socializes individuals into the dominant culture and into an ethnic culture </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ethnic Composition of the United States
  18. 18. Roots of Ethnic Conflict <ul><ul><li>Prejudice – devaluing a group because of its assume behavior, values, capabilities or attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination – policies and practices that harm a group and its members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De facto – practiced but not legally sanctioned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De jure – part of the law </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prejudice and Discrimination </li></ul>
  19. 19. Roots of Ethnic Conflict <ul><ul><li>Ethnic competition and conflict evident in North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New arrivals versus long-established ethnic groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aftermaths of oppression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genocide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnocide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural colonialism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chips in the Mosaic </li></ul>
  20. 20. Roots of Ethnic Conflict <ul><li>Colonialism – political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time </li></ul>State of Colonialism in 1763
  21. 21. Ethnic Refugees in the U.S. <ul><li>3 generations of Basques in Montana </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees: peoles who have been foreced to flee a country to escape persecution, war, or violence </li></ul>