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Anth1 Ethnicity A


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Anth1 Ethnicity A

  1. 1. Week 4 Ethnicity & Race Deep within the word “American” is its association with race... American means white, and Africanist people struggle to make the term applicable to themselves with ethnicity and hyphen after hyphen after hyphen. - Tony Morrison Playing in the Dark, 1993:47
  2. 2. Ethnicity and Race Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity Human Biological Diversity and the Race Concept Race and Ethnicity The Social Construction of Race Continued
  3. 3. Ethnicity Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity Race The Social Construction of Race & Ethnicity Social Stratification Ethnic Groups and Nationalities Peaceful Coexistence Roots of Ethnic Conflict
  4. 4. Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity Ethnic group – members share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms because of their common background Ethnicity revealed when people claim a certain ethnic identity for themselves and are defined by others as having that identity
  5. 5. Ethnicity: Primordial Identity & Loyalties  Frederick Barth: ‘When people claim an identity for themselves & are defined by others as having that identity’
  6. 6. The Concept of Race  Race is ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis  Race is a “cultural construction”.  Race has political purpose but not scientific basis • Race is what others “do” to you... Ethnicity is what you do to yourself Hardin Coleman, Ph.D. Univ. of Wisconsin
  7. 7. Tribe: Meaning 1: A grp of persons forming a community & claiming descent from a common ancestor. Meaning 2: A grp of people in a primitive or barbarous condition, under a headman or chief. Used in public spheres, not much in cultural anthropology
  8. 8. Variations of Race & Ethnicity America Race Ethnicity of “Amer Indian” Hispanic Kumeya ay Asian Zuñi Pacific Islander Navajo American Indian Gabrieliñ o/Tongva Black Chumas h White Seri Yuma
  9. 9. Variations of Race & Ethnicity Kenya Race Ethnicity of “Black” Arab Maasai Black Kikuyu White Kalenjin Indian (>India) Kamba Luo Samburu Turkana
  10. 10. Race/Ethnic Identification in the United States, 2002
  11. 11. Ethnic Groups and Social Stratification Status – various social positions that people occupy – Ascribed status – Position in society that you receive at birth; little choice about occupying position in society – Achieved status – gained through choices, actions, efforts, talents, or accomplishments. A situational negotiation of social identity... • May be positive or negative
  12. 12. Social Statuses Some statuses, particularly ascribed ones, mutually exclusive Some statuses are contextual
  13. 13. Minority & Majority Groups  Minority Groups – subordinate group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population Inferior power and less secure access to resources than majority groups  Majority Groups – dominant group that does constitutes a politically plurality of the total population
  14. 14. Race Better to use term “ethnic group” instead of “race” to describe social groups anthropologically Cultural category rather than a biological reality
  15. 15. The Social Construction of Race  Ethnic groups assumed to have biological basis but actually defined in a culturally arbitrary, rather than scientific, manner  In theory, biological race a geographically isolated subdivision of a species  Race supposed to reflect shared genetic material  Early scholars used phenotype: organism’s evident traits
  16. 16. White Studies  The privileges of whiteness - Peggy McIntosh  ‘White’ as unmarked, natural category to which others compare  “Passing”: People or ethnic groups who shift pass into social status as “white”
  17. 17. Race & Whiteness in Canadian Census  “...persons, other than Aboriginal peoples (a.k.a. First Nation in Canada, Native Americans in the United States], who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour  Canada’s visible minority population increasing steadily • Canadian census asks about “visible minorities”
  18. 18. Canadian Visible Minority Population of Canada, 2001 Census Source: Statistics Canada 2001
  19. 19. Americans Reporting They Belonged to Just One Race
  20. 20. Figure 6.2: Reproduction of Questions on Race and Hispanic Origin from Census 2000
  21. 21. Hypodescent: Race in the United States  Rule of Descent – assigns social identity on basis of ancestry  Hypodescent – automatically places children of a union or mating between members of different groups in the lower status or social class Helps divide American society into groups that have been unequal in access to wealth, power, and prestige • In American culture, one acquires his or her racial identity at birth
  22. 22. Hyperdescent  Claiming social status of dominant status parent, and being accepted by dominant society for that choice Vanessa Hudgens, American singer & actress Photo: Wikipedia
  23. 23. Ethnic Ambiguity & Status Shifting  Many celebrities these days are of a mixed ethnicity. Derek Jeter, Mariah Carey, Tiger Woods, Vin Diesel, Norah Jones... Norah Jones, American Singer of European and Bengali descent photo: