Global Issues & Biocultural Diversity
Topics for Discussion <ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodernity </li></...
Acculturation <ul><ul><li>Westernization  – the influence of Western expansion on indigenous peoples and their cultures </...
Westernization <ul><li>A process whereby non-western societies come under the influence of Western (Occidental, European, ...
Sinicization <ul><li>1) Assimilation of non-Han Chinese; </li></ul><ul><li>2) acculturation by neighboring countries of Ch...
Anniversaries of Tibetan Uprising against China <ul><li>March  2008: Cars were overturned cars and shops burning in Barkho...
Hinduization (& Sanskritization) <ul><li>Austroasiatic peoples in India fought political encapsulation </li></ul><ul><li>~...
Contact and Domination in Europe <ul><ul><li>Ethnocide  - the destruction of a culture of a people, as opposed to the peop...
Latvia Map <ul><li>1.4 million Latvians </li></ul><ul><li>200 Livonians </li></ul><ul><li>9,000 Jews </li></ul><ul><li>8,0...
Cultural Imperialism <ul><ul><li>Technologically complex societies dominate technologically simple societies </li></ul></u...
Social & Economic Organization
Globalization: People in Motion <ul><li>Globalization promotes intercultural communication, including travel and migration...
People in Motion <ul><ul><li>Scale of human movement  expanded dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaspora : offsprin...
The Postmodern Condition <ul><li>Postmodernity  -  A social condition  reflecting greater population movements, multiple i...
Postmodernity at Multicultural Conferences Children from Antigua, Argentina, Bonaire, Curacao,  Ecuador, Jamaica, Paraguay...
Spread Cultures vs. Residual Cultures <ul><li>Spread cultures: Agrarian societies that need more resources </li></ul><ul><...
Indigenous People: People residing in a region... <ul><li>Before colonization  </li></ul><ul><li>During the earliest forma...
Indigenous People called... <ul><li>Ind í gena  (not indio) in S. America </li></ul><ul><li>Adivasi  in S. Asia </li></ul>...
Identity in Indigenous Politics <ul><li>Identity is fluid and multiple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identities seen as </li></ul>...
Identity in Indigenous Politics <ul><li>Identity is fluid, dynamic process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple ways of being in...
Small-Scale Societies: <ul><li>Do small-scale societies  live within their natural resource “carrying capacities”? </li></...
Carrying Capacity: <ul><li>The maximum number of individuals of a given species that a site can support during the most un...
Agrarian Societies: <ul><li>Have any agrarian societies lived within their environmental carrying capacities? </li></ul>
What’s my Ecological Footprint? <ul><li>a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>It takes ~4 ...
Conserving Biodiversity <ul><li>View from World Conservation Union: </li></ul><ul><li>A major challenge to conserving biod...
Conserving Biodiversity <ul><li>Investigation: Learn how Natural & Cultural Systems Function </li></ul>Wild pig hunting in...
Ranked Prey of Rajis of India <ul><li>Porcupine </li></ul><ul><li>Bats </li></ul><ul><li>Sambar (Cervis Unicolor) </li></ul>
Collapse: How Societies Choose to Succeed or Fail Jared Diamond Rapa Nui Polynesian Farmers Colonized Easter island  ~1000...
Information sharing b/n Governments & Indigenous Groups <ul><li>Kumeyaay water management: “Rock drop” dam formations crea...
The Continuance of Diversity <ul><li>Anthropology has crucial role to play in promoting more humanistic vision of social c...
Incentives: Helping Conserve Biodiversity <ul><li>Linkages must be made between business & conservation interest groups </...
Integration: Promote Conservation Biodiversity across sectors <ul><li>Conservation across sectors promotes more interest <...
International Cooperation: Building Collaborations <ul><li>Convention on Biological Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Nations ha...
Biocultural Diversity: Biological  and  Cultural Diversity <ul><li>Indigenous peoples need to be included and active in co...
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Anth1 Ch15 Sht Vs

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Anth1 Ch15 Sht Vs

  1. 1. Global Issues & Biocultural Diversity
  2. 2. Topics for Discussion <ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodernity </li></ul><ul><li>Indigeneity & Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Biocultural Diversity in the Modern World </li></ul>
  3. 3. Acculturation <ul><ul><li>Westernization – the influence of Western expansion on indigenous peoples and their cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinicization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acculturation – changes that result when groups come into continuous firsthand contact with another group that changes the cultural patterns of either or both groups </li></ul>
  4. 4. Westernization <ul><li>A process whereby non-western societies come under the influence of Western (Occidental, European, American) cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of influence: alphabet, diet, economics, industry, language, law, lifestyle, politics, religion, sartorial choices, technology, values </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sinicization <ul><li>1) Assimilation of non-Han Chinese; </li></ul><ul><li>2) acculturation by neighboring countries of Chinese culture </li></ul><ul><li>1950 begins physical invasion of Tibet by China </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a Chinese political state called Tibet Autonomous Region </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed Buddhist & Bon temples </li></ul>Potala Palace; former residence Of the Dalai Lama who is now in Exile in India
  6. 6. Anniversaries of Tibetan Uprising against China <ul><li>March 2008: Cars were overturned cars and shops burning in Barkhor Square in front of the Jokhand Temple in central Lhasa, Tibet. </li></ul><ul><li>March 2009: 50th anniversary of the Tibetan uprising against Chinese rule </li></ul>2008 The New York Times
  7. 7. Hinduization (& Sanskritization) <ul><li>Austroasiatic peoples in India fought political encapsulation </li></ul><ul><li>~8% of South Asians are forced to adopt Hindu moral & legal codes </li></ul>Santal Adivasi (Indigenous); Photo: lh3.google.com
  8. 8. Contact and Domination in Europe <ul><ul><li>Ethnocide - the destruction of a culture of a people, as opposed to the people themselves (genocide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 Livonians remain; only 20 speak the language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by millions of Latvians </li></ul></ul>Livonians in the Repulic of Latvia
  9. 9. Latvia Map <ul><li>1.4 million Latvians </li></ul><ul><li>200 Livonians </li></ul><ul><li>9,000 Jews </li></ul><ul><li>8,000 Romani (Gypsies) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cultural Imperialism <ul><ul><li>Technologically complex societies dominate technologically simple societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some see modern technology as erasing cultural differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others see modern technology providing opportunity for social groups (local cultures) to express themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spread or advance of one culture at expense of others </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social & Economic Organization
  12. 12. Globalization: People in Motion <ul><li>Globalization promotes intercultural communication, including travel and migration, which bring people from different societies into direct contact </li></ul>Tourists at Indira Gandhi airport
  13. 13. People in Motion <ul><ul><li>Scale of human movement expanded dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaspora : offspring of an area who have spread to many lands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linkages in modern world system enlarged and erased old boundaries and distinctions </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Postmodern Condition <ul><li>Postmodernity - A social condition reflecting greater population movements, multiple identities of people, and the rejection of earlier modernist ideas of progress </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodern - A Cultural period after Ancient, Medieval, Modern historical eras; period marked by breakdown of established categories & boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodernism - An aesthetic style reflecting interweaving of Western with non-Western ideas; overlapping styles </li></ul>
  15. 15. Postmodernity at Multicultural Conferences Children from Antigua, Argentina, Bonaire, Curacao, Ecuador, Jamaica, Paraguay and Venezuela attending a conference in Dominican Republic; www.jci.cc
  16. 16. Spread Cultures vs. Residual Cultures <ul><li>Spread cultures: Agrarian societies that need more resources </li></ul><ul><li>Residual cultures: Societies that require few natural resources remained within given territories </li></ul>
  17. 17. Indigenous People: People residing in a region... <ul><li>Before colonization </li></ul><ul><li>During the earliest formation of a nation-state </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistically, culturally, socially isolated from the dominant nation-state </li></ul><ul><li>Peoples who identify as indigenous and are recognised as such by other groups. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Indigenous People called... <ul><li>Ind í gena (not indio) in S. America </li></ul><ul><li>Adivasi in S. Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Aborigine in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>First Nations Peoples in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Autochthon in Eurasia </li></ul><ul><li>Native American in United State </li></ul>Raute elder Man Bahadur Photo: J. Fortier, 1997
  19. 19. Identity in Indigenous Politics <ul><li>Identity is fluid and multiple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identities seen as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially plural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging through a specific process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ways of being someone in particular times and places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Essentialism : process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen </li></ul>
  20. 20. Identity in Indigenous Politics <ul><li>Identity is fluid, dynamic process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple ways of being indigenous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identities seen as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potentially plural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging through a specific process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ways of being someone in particular times and places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dancer at Chumash Cultural Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: MalibuSurfsideNews </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Small-Scale Societies: <ul><li>Do small-scale societies live within their natural resource “carrying capacities”? </li></ul>Pastoralists in Pakistan
  22. 22. Carrying Capacity: <ul><li>The maximum number of individuals of a given species that a site can support during the most unfavorable time of year, without causing deterioration of the site. For example, the maximum number of deer that can be supported on a site without depleting browse. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Agrarian Societies: <ul><li>Have any agrarian societies lived within their environmental carrying capacities? </li></ul>
  24. 24. What’s my Ecological Footprint? <ul><li>a measure of human demand on the Earth's ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>It takes ~4 Earths to support me </li></ul><ul><li>It takes ~20 global acres to support me </li></ul><ul><li>footprintcalculator .org </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conserving Biodiversity <ul><li>View from World Conservation Union: </li></ul><ul><li>A major challenge to conserving biodiversity involves understanding socioeconomic and political areas of humanity </li></ul><ul><li>A need to make policy-makers understand the realities of conservation </li></ul>Jeffery McNeely
  26. 26. Conserving Biodiversity <ul><li>Investigation: Learn how Natural & Cultural Systems Function </li></ul>Wild pig hunting in Maui
  27. 27. Ranked Prey of Rajis of India <ul><li>Porcupine </li></ul><ul><li>Bats </li></ul><ul><li>Sambar (Cervis Unicolor) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Succeed or Fail Jared Diamond Rapa Nui Polynesian Farmers Colonized Easter island ~1000 years ago
  29. 29. Information sharing b/n Governments & Indigenous Groups <ul><li>Kumeyaay water management: “Rock drop” dam formations create backflow & ponds </li></ul>Campo Reservation, San Diego County
  30. 30. The Continuance of Diversity <ul><li>Anthropology has crucial role to play in promoting more humanistic vision of social change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One that respects value of cultural diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence of anthropology contributes to continuing need to understand social and cultural similarities and differences </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Incentives: Helping Conserve Biodiversity <ul><li>Linkages must be made between business & conservation interest groups </li></ul><ul><li>WATHEROO MINERALS company creates Eucalyptus reserve in exchange for mining rights </li></ul>
  32. 32. Integration: Promote Conservation Biodiversity across sectors <ul><li>Conservation across sectors promotes more interest </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism, native people’s political groups, water resource management, marine fisheries, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) </li></ul>
  33. 33. International Cooperation: Building Collaborations <ul><li>Convention on Biological Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Nations have sovereign rights over their resources and are responsible for sustainable use of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Local communities are an intrinsic part of the landscape of natural resources </li></ul>
  34. 34. Biocultural Diversity: Biological and Cultural Diversity <ul><li>Indigenous peoples need to be included and active in conservation activities </li></ul>

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