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Race and ethnicity - Robert Wonser


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Race and ethnicity - Robert Wonser

  1. 1. Lesson 9: Race and Ethnicity Robert Wonser Introduction to Sociology
  2. 2. Lesson Outline Race and ethnicity defined What is a minority? Racism, discrimination and prejudice defined Invisible knapsack Theories Life chances Some statistics Race relations Introduction to Sociology: Race 2 and Ethnicity
  3. 3. Reifications Race and ethnicity are social constructions. They are defined and maintained through interaction. They do not exist biologically. They are reifications, social constructions. Introduction to Sociology: Race 3 and Ethnicity
  4. 4. Race and Ethnicity Defined Race is a socially defined category, based on real or perceived biological differences between groups of people. Ethnicity is a socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or another cultural factor. Introduction to Sociology: Race 4 and Ethnicity
  5. 5. Race and Ethnicity Defined (cont’d) Sociologists see race and ethnicity as social constructions because they are not rooted in biological differences, they change over time, and they never have firm boundaries.  Ex: white Introduction to Sociology: Race 5 and Ethnicity
  6. 6.  This woman is not real. She was created by a computer from a mix of several races. Introduction to Sociology: Race 6 and Ethnicity
  7. 7. Defining Race and Ethnicity(cont’d) The distinction between race and ethnicity is important because ethnicity can be displayed or hidden, depending on individual preferences, while racial identities are always on display. Introduction to Sociology: Race 7 and Ethnicity
  8. 8. Race and Ethnicity Defined (cont’d) Symbolic ethnicity is an ethnic identity that is only relevant on specific occasions and does not significantly impact everyday Crowds line the streets at the St. life. Patrick’s Day Parade in New York City. How is this an example of symbolic ethnicity? Introduction to Sociology: Race 8 and Ethnicity
  9. 9. What Is a Minority? A minority group is made up of members of a social group that is systematically denied the same access to power and resources available to the dominant groups of a society, but who are not necessarily fewer in number than the dominant group. Introduction to Sociology: Race 9 and Ethnicity
  10. 10. Racism, Prejudice, andDiscrimination Racism: a set of beliefs about the superiority of one racial or ethnic group.  Used to justify inequality  Often rooted in the assumption that differences between groups are genetic. It is an ideology. Introduction to Sociology: Race 10 and Ethnicity
  11. 11. Racism, Prejudice, andDiscrimination (cont’d) Prejudice: (a thought process)  an idea about the characteristics of a group  applied to all members of that group  unlikely to change regardless of the evidence against it. Discrimination: (an action)  unequal treatment of individuals because of their social group  usually motivated by prejudice Introduction to Sociology: Race 11 and Ethnicity
  12. 12. Racism, Prejudice, andDiscrimination (cont’d) Individual discrimination (or racism) is discrimination carried out by one person against another. Institutional discrimination (or racism) is discrimination carried out systematically by social institutions (political, economic, educational, and others) that affect all members of a group who come into contact with it. Introduction to Sociology: Race 12 and Ethnicity
  13. 13. Racism, Prejudice, andDiscrimination (cont’d) Institutional racism is pervasive. If all racist people went away racism would still exist because it is in our institutions. It does not reside in any one person but is in the fabric and patterned interactions (social structure). Introduction to Sociology: Race 13 and Ethnicity
  14. 14. The Flipside to Disadvantage Racism and discrimination disadvantages some but benefits others in the form of an invisible unseen privilege. Invisible knapsack refers to the unearned resources (carried in the Invisible Knapsack) that are not in broad view or intended to be seen. “White privilege is like an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools and blank checks. Introduction to Sociology: Race 14 and Ethnicity
  15. 15. * I can be pretty sure that myneighbors in such a location will beneutral or pleasant to me.* I can go shopping alone most ofthe time, pretty well assured that Iwill not be followed or harassed.* I can turn on the television or opento the front page of the paper andsee people of my race widelyrepresented* If a traffic cop pulls me over or ifthe IRS audits my tax return, I canbe sure I haven’t been singled outbecause of my race. Introduction to Sociology: Race 15 and Ethnicity
  16. 16. Theoretical Approaches toUnderstanding Race in America Functionalist theorists  Focus on the ways that race creates social ties and strengthens group bonds  Acknowledge that such ties can lead to violence and social conflict between groups Introduction to Sociology: Race 16 and Ethnicity
  17. 17. Theoretical Approaches to UnderstandingRace in America (cont’d) Conflict theory focuses on the struggle for power and control over scarce resources. Introduction to Sociology: Race 17 and Ethnicity
  18. 18. Race as an InteractionalAccomplishment Symbolic Interactionists focus on the ways that race, class, and gender intersect to produce an individual’s identity. They see race as an aspect of identity established through interaction. There are several different ways that we project and receive our racial and ethnic identities. Introduction to Sociology: Race 18 and Ethnicity
  19. 19. Theories of Race in Review Introduction to Sociology: Race 19 and Ethnicity
  20. 20. An Ethnic Snapshot of AmericaToday Introduction to Sociology: Race 20 and Ethnicity
  21. 21. Race, Ethnicity, and Life Chances Race and ethnicity influence all aspects of our lives, including health, education, work, family, and interactions with the criminal justice system. Introduction to Sociology: Race 21 and Ethnicity
  22. 22. Number of Executions and Race ofPrisoners Executed, 1976–2009 Introduction to Sociology: Race 22 and Ethnicity
  23. 23. Race, Ethnicity, and Life Chances(cont’d) Health care is an area in which we find widespread disparity between racial and ethnic groups. Disparities in access to health care may help explain the life expectancy rates for men and women of different races. Introduction to Sociology: Race 23 and Ethnicity
  24. 24. Americans without HealthInsurance by Race, 2007 Introduction to Sociology: Race 24 and Ethnicity
  25. 25. U.S. Infant Mortality Rate, 2005 Introduction to Sociology: Race 25 and Ethnicity
  26. 26. U.S. Life Expectancy by Race, 2007 Introduction to Sociology: Race 26 and Ethnicity
  27. 27. Race, Ethnicity, and Life Chances(cont’d) In U.S. education, the highest high school dropout rates are associated with those from economically disadvantaged and non-English- speaking backgrounds. Introduction to Sociology: Race 27 and Ethnicity
  28. 28. EducationalAttainmentBased on Race,2007 Introduction to Sociology: Race 28 and Ethnicity
  29. 29. Race, Ethnicity, and Life Chances(cont’d) Inequality can also be seen in the workplace and in income distribution. People of color, who are less likely to achieve high levels of education, are more likely to have lower-paying jobs. Introduction to Sociology: Race 29 and Ethnicity
  30. 30. Median Net Worth ofHouseholds Introduction to Sociology: Race 30 and Ethnicity
  31. 31. Race, Ethnicity, and Life Chances(cont’d) Finally, non-whites are more likely to interact with law enforcement. Introduction to Sociology: Race 31 and Ethnicity
  32. 32. Race Relations: Conflict orCooperation Genocide is the deliberate and systematic extermination of a racial, ethnic, national, or cultural group. Population transfer the forcible removal of a group of people from the territory they have occupied. Introduction to Sociology: Race 32 and Ethnicity
  33. 33. Race Relations: Conflict orCooperation Internal colonialism is the economic and political domination and subjugation of the minority group by the controlling group within a nation. Segregation is the formal and legal separation of groups by race or ethnicity. Introduction to Sociology: Race 33 and Ethnicity
  34. 34. Race Relations: Conflict orCooperation Assimilation the minority group is absorbed into the mainstream or dominant group, making society more homogeneous.  Racial assimilation racial minority groups are absorbed into the dominant group through intermarriage.  Cultural assimilation racial or ethnic groups are absorbed into the dominant group by adopting the dominant group’s culture. Introduction to Sociology: Race 34 and Ethnicity
  35. 35. Race Relations: Conflict orCooperation Pluralism (or multiculturalism) is a pattern of inter-group relations that encourage racial and ethnic variation within a society. Introduction to Sociology: Race 35 and Ethnicity
  36. 36. A Class Divided A Class Divided video Introduction to Sociology: Race 36 and Ethnicity
  37. 37. Take Away Points: Race and ethnicity are social constructions, or reifications. They do not exist in the natural world but only in the social world. They have real consequences and are used as the basis for inequality. Like social class, they have effects on life chances. Introduction to Sociology: Race 37 and Ethnicity
  38. 38. Lesson Quiz1. A socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or another cultural factor is called: a. ethnicity b. symbolic ethnicity c. symbolic race d. race Introduction to Sociology: Race 38 and Ethnicity
  39. 39. Lesson Quiz2. The unequal treatment of individuals because of their social group is called: a. racism b. Discrimination c. prejudice d. institutional racism Introduction to Sociology: Race 39 and Ethnicity
  40. 40. Lesson Quiz3. Light-skinned African Americans who attempt to live as white in order to avoid the consequences of being black in a racist society are practicing: a. racial passing b. social fraud c. ethnic cleansing d. symbolic racism Introduction to Sociology: Race 40 and Ethnicity
  41. 41. Lesson Quiz4. An idea about the characteristics of a group describes: a. prejudice b. assimilation c. discrimination d. stereotyping Introduction to Sociology: Race 41 and Ethnicity
  42. 42. Lesson Quiz5. The pattern of intergroup relations that encourages racial and ethnic variation within a society is called: a. pluralism b. segregation c. population transfer d. assimilation Introduction to Sociology: Race 42 and Ethnicity
  43. 43. For Next Time: The other major social category regarding inequality: Gender, another social construction Be sure to Read! (check your syllabus for assigned readings!) Introduction to Sociology: Race 43 and Ethnicity