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Making a Living Economic Systems in Cross-Cultural Perspective
Making a Living <ul><li>Adaptive Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Pas...
Making a Living <ul><li>What are the major adaptive strategies found in nonindustrial societies? </li></ul><ul><li>What is...
Adaptive Strategies <ul><li>Food collection vs. food production: The advent of food production fueled major changes in hum...
Adaptive Strategies <ul><ul><li>Foraging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horticulture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </...
Yehudi Cohen’s Adaptive Strategies (Economic Typology) Summarized
Foraging <ul><ul><li>All foragers rely on natural resources for subsistence, rather than cultivating plants or herding ani...
Foraging <ul><ul><li>Correlations  – association or covariation between two or more variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><ul><li>Land:  use rights rather than land ownership; territoriality </li></ul></u...
Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><li>Technology:  simple but needs knowledge of resources </li></ul><ul><li>no /lit...
Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><li>Kinship:  sharing, fluid, bilocal residenence  </li></ul>Photo © David Sanger ...
Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><li>Religion: based on nature </li></ul>Ona (Tierra del Fuegan) Shaman
Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><li>Div of Labor: By Sex and Gender, no institutionalized specialists or leaders <...
Recent Foragers <ul><li>Historically known foraging communities that have few or no families that actively forage for food...
Environment & Diet Celsius=mean temp/year; Biomass=#kilos/km3 of vegetation;  H=hunting; G=Gathering; F=fishing 20 45 35 2...
Indigenous Peoples of South America
Tierra del Fuego
Ona  or  Selk’nam <ul><li>Magellan 1520 </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin 1839 </li></ul><ul><li>Gusinde 1920’s (3+ yrs) </li></ul>...
Ona-Selk’nam of 1920’s <ul><li>2 Zones: Guanaco rich zone & wild rodent zone </li></ul><ul><li>38 local lineage territorie...
Subsistence of Ona (Tierra del Fuegans) Guanaco (above) & Tuco tuco Or Cururos (right). Rodents Are a delicacy today.
Initiation ceremonies
Modern Foragers People who collect their  food from grocery stores
The Cultivation Continuum: Degrees of plant domestication <ul><li>Manipulation - controlled burns </li></ul><ul><li>Active...
The Cultivation Continuum <ul><ul><li>Horticulture always uses a fallow period whereas agriculture does not </li></ul></ul...
Social Space of Economic Systems
Horticulture <ul><ul><li>Field not permanently cultivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slash-and-burn cultivation </li><...
Horticulturalists
Hanunoo of Philippines <ul><li>Products: tubers, fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Land: slash/burn; little or no ownership </li></...
Amazonian Columbia: Nukak 300-500 surviving; many deaths in recent years
Nukak subsistence pound the roots of  Lonchocarpus ,  releasing the poisons into a stream.
Nukak Plant cultivation <ul><li>Introduced varietal gardens </li></ul><ul><li>banana, chili, papaya, manioc </li></ul><ul>...
Pastoralism <ul><li>Pastoralists  – herders whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, c...
Pastoralists <ul><li>Products: urine, blood, hides, feces, bone, hair + meat & milk </li></ul><ul><li>Land: little ownersh...
Pastoralists <ul><ul><li>Pastoral Nomadism  – members of pastoral society follow herd throughout the year </li></ul></ul><...
Sami Herding Photo: www.eng.samer.se <ul><li>Pastoral peoples spread among separate nation-states </li></ul><ul><li>Affect...
Agriculture <ul><li>Domesticated animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many agriculturalists use animals as means of production </...
Cultivation <ul><ul><li>Labor necessary to build and maintain a system of terraces is great </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs a...
Cultivation <ul><ul><li>Long-term yield per area is far greater and more dependable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture...
Agrarian Intensive Land Use  Millet fields, Nepal. Photo: J. Fortier
Intensification: People and the Environment <ul><li>Agricultural economies grow increasingly specialized – focusing on: </...
Economic Anthropology <ul><li>Economy  – system of production, distribution, consumption, and reproduction of value, of re...
Economic Anthropology: 3 Flavors <ul><li>Formalism </li></ul><ul><li>Marxist/Marxian  Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Subst...
Formalists: Focus on Maximization (Mini-Max Theories) <ul><li>Economics is the study of utility maximisation under conditi...
Economizing and Maximization <ul><li>Economizing  – rational allocation of scarce means (or resources) to alternative ends...
Economizing and Maximization <ul><ul><li>Maximize profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres...
Economizing and Maximization <ul><ul><li>People devote some of their time and energy to building up subsistence fund </li>...
Economizing and Maximization <ul><ul><ul><li>Live in state – organized societies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incom...
Substantivism: Focus on Real Economic Systems <ul><li>A cultural approach to economics - emphasizes the way economies are ...
Karl Polanyi <ul><li>1886-1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Economic scholar </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced anthropologists such as Jul...
Substantivism: Focus on Real Exchange Systems <ul><ul><li>“ Organizational process of purchase and sale at money price” (D...
Distribution, Exchange <ul><ul><li>Exchange between social equals, normally related by kinship, marriage, or close persona...
Distribution, Exchange <ul><ul><li>Generalized reciprocity  – giving with no specific expectation of exchange </li></ul></...
Economic Integration  <ul><li>In North America, market principle governs many exchanges   </li></ul><ul><li>Also support r...
Potlatching <ul><ul><li>Some tribes still practice the potlatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potlatches traditionally gave a...
Potlatching <ul><ul><li>Potlaching also served to prevent the development of socioeconomic stratification, a system of soc...
Location of Potlaching Groups Tsimshian Potlatch; Photo: www.civilization.ca/aborig/cxs/ images/cxsm10b.gif
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Anth1 Economics Vs2

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Anth1 Economics Vs2

  1. 1. Making a Living Economic Systems in Cross-Cultural Perspective
  2. 2. Making a Living <ul><li>Adaptive Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Foraging </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism </li></ul><ul><li>Modes of Production </li></ul><ul><li>Economizing and Maximization </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution & Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Potlatching </li></ul>
  3. 3. Making a Living <ul><li>What are the major adaptive strategies found in nonindustrial societies? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an economy, and what is economizing behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>What principles regulate the exchange of goods and services in various societies? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Adaptive Strategies <ul><li>Food collection vs. food production: The advent of food production fueled major changes in human life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yehudi Cohen used term “adaptive strategy:” a system of economic production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular correlations exist between economic systems and their social features. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Adaptive Strategies <ul><ul><li>Foraging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horticulture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastoralism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cohen discusses 5 adaptive strategies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Yehudi Cohen’s Adaptive Strategies (Economic Typology) Summarized
  7. 7. Foraging <ul><ul><li>All foragers rely on natural resources for subsistence, rather than cultivating plants or herding animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foraging survives in environments that posed obstacles to food cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foraging economies have relied on direct use of natural resources to make their living </li></ul>
  8. 8. Foraging <ul><ul><li>Correlations – association or covariation between two or more variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who subsist by hunting, gathering, and fishing often live in band-organized societies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Band – small group of fewer than 100 people </li></ul></ul></ul>Correlates of Foraging
  9. 9. Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><ul><li>Land: use rights rather than land ownership; territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadism </li></ul></ul>Aw á of Ecuador/ Photo: F. Watson
  10. 10. Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><li>Technology: simple but needs knowledge of resources </li></ul><ul><li>no /little storage </li></ul>Photo:Ituri Forest Peoples Fund
  11. 11. Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><li>Kinship: sharing, fluid, bilocal residenence </li></ul>Photo © David Sanger South Africa, Western Cape , Kalahari San family, Kagga Kamma
  12. 12. Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><li>Religion: based on nature </li></ul>Ona (Tierra del Fuegan) Shaman
  13. 13. Hunter-Gatherers: Societal Features <ul><li>Div of Labor: By Sex and Gender, no institutionalized specialists or leaders </li></ul>www.peacefulsocieties.org
  14. 14. Recent Foragers <ul><li>Historically known foraging communities that have few or no families that actively forage for food and materials, and who have thus transferred from mainly food collecting to a mixed economy </li></ul>Luise ño/ Kumeyaay elder working on cultural resources management Project/Photo: J.Fortier
  15. 15. Environment & Diet Celsius=mean temp/year; Biomass=#kilos/km3 of vegetation; H=hunting; G=Gathering; F=fishing 20 45 35 2800 23 Vedda 5 70 25 2,358 20.6 Siriono 0 70 30 209 18.4 Walpiri 0 65 35 1508 17.7 Hadza 10 50 40 26 14.6 Kumiai 50 30 20 661 12 Ainu 50 10 40 45 8.5 Inuit F% G% H% Biomass Celsius Group
  16. 16. Indigenous Peoples of South America
  17. 17. Tierra del Fuego
  18. 18. Ona or Selk’nam <ul><li>Magellan 1520 </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin 1839 </li></ul><ul><li>Gusinde 1920’s (3+ yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Anne Chapman 1960’s (3 mo.) </li></ul><ul><li>Junius Bird (10 yrs) of archaeology </li></ul>1830’s depiction by Beagle artist
  19. 19. Ona-Selk’nam of 1920’s <ul><li>2 Zones: Guanaco rich zone & wild rodent zone </li></ul><ul><li>38 local lineage territories </li></ul><ul><li>MOP/Economy: few plants, seal, bird, clams, fish, bird eggs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Subsistence of Ona (Tierra del Fuegans) Guanaco (above) & Tuco tuco Or Cururos (right). Rodents Are a delicacy today.
  21. 21. Initiation ceremonies
  22. 22. Modern Foragers People who collect their food from grocery stores
  23. 23. The Cultivation Continuum: Degrees of plant domestication <ul><li>Manipulation - controlled burns </li></ul><ul><li>Active management - saving seed </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation - keeping a seasonal garden </li></ul><ul><li>Domestication - selecting, cross-breeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a continuum from foraging to farming </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. The Cultivation Continuum <ul><ul><li>Horticulture always uses a fallow period whereas agriculture does not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Until recently, horticulture was main form of cultivation in Africa, Southeast Asia, Pacific islands, Mexico, Central America, and South American tropical forest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate economies, combining horticulture and agricultural features, exist </li></ul>
  25. 25. Social Space of Economic Systems
  26. 26. Horticulture <ul><ul><li>Field not permanently cultivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slash-and-burn cultivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting cultivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultivation that makes extensive (not intensive) use of production: land, labor, capital, and machinery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use simple tools </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Horticulturalists
  28. 28. Hanunoo of Philippines <ul><li>Products: tubers, fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Land: slash/burn; little or no ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Technology: simple </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship: patrilineal or matrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Ancestor worship often </li></ul><ul><li>Div of labor: a few specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Politics: Chiefdoms </li></ul>Photo: Dario Novellino
  29. 29. Amazonian Columbia: Nukak 300-500 surviving; many deaths in recent years
  30. 30. Nukak subsistence pound the roots of Lonchocarpus , releasing the poisons into a stream.
  31. 31. Nukak Plant cultivation <ul><li>Introduced varietal gardens </li></ul><ul><li>banana, chili, papaya, manioc </li></ul><ul><li>Wild gardens </li></ul><ul><li>palms, achiote , plantains </li></ul>
  32. 32. Pastoralism <ul><li>Pastoralists – herders whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and yak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herders attempt to protect their animals and to ensure their reproduction in return for food and other products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herders typically make direct use of their herds for food </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Pastoralists <ul><li>Products: urine, blood, hides, feces, bone, hair + meat & milk </li></ul><ul><li>Land: little ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Tech: simple, movable, for weaving, carving, leatherworking </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship: patrilineal </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: animal-based </li></ul><ul><li>Div of labor: some specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on trade </li></ul>Water buffalo herding, Nepal; Photo: J. Fortier
  34. 34. Pastoralists <ul><ul><li>Pastoral Nomadism – members of pastoral society follow herd throughout the year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transhumance – part of group moves with herd, but most stay in the home village </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Range Herding systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-Range Herding Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herding mixed with Other Productive Systems; eg. Sami reindeer herding </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Sami Herding Photo: www.eng.samer.se <ul><li>Pastoral peoples spread among separate nation-states </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by environmental stresses - Chernobyl </li></ul><ul><li>Combine herding with hunting, fishing, wage work, farming </li></ul>
  36. 36. Agriculture <ul><li>Domesticated animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many agriculturalists use animals as means of production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cultivate a plot year after year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital investment that increases in value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Intensive” Cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture does, because it uses land continuously </li></ul>
  37. 37. Cultivation <ul><ul><li>Labor necessary to build and maintain a system of terraces is great </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs and Benefits of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term yield per area is far greater and more dependable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terracing </li></ul>
  38. 38. Cultivation <ul><ul><li>Long-term yield per area is far greater and more dependable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture societies tend to be more densely populated than are horticultural ones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agrarian societies are “Spread” societies </li></ul></ul>Costs and Benefits of Agriculture
  39. 39. Agrarian Intensive Land Use Millet fields, Nepal. Photo: J. Fortier
  40. 40. Intensification: People and the Environment <ul><li>Agricultural economies grow increasingly specialized – focusing on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or a few caloric staples, such as rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals that are raised </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural economies also pose a series of regulatory problems – which central governments often have arisen to solve </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive cultivators are sedentary people </li></ul>
  41. 41. Economic Anthropology <ul><li>Economy – system of production, distribution, consumption, and reproduction of value, of resources </li></ul><ul><li>What forms can value take? </li></ul>Sage collected for medicine; Kumeyaay of Baja collected ~5 tons & sold to Japan
  42. 42. Economic Anthropology: 3 Flavors <ul><li>Formalism </li></ul><ul><li>Marxist/Marxian Anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>Substantivism </li></ul><ul><li>(>Culturalism) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Formalists: Focus on Maximization (Mini-Max Theories) <ul><li>Economics is the study of utility maximisation under conditions of scarcity. </li></ul><ul><li>the individual will make rational choices based on full information </li></ul><ul><li>Universalizing principles </li></ul><ul><li>We the Tikopia , R. Firth </li></ul>Anthropologist Raymond Firth 1901-2002, London School of Economics
  44. 44. Economizing and Maximization <ul><li>Economizing – rational allocation of scarce means (or resources) to alternative ends </li></ul>Idea that individuals choose to maximize profits basic assumption of classical economist of 19th century www.oeku.net/.../images/ theogrundlagen-280_1.jpg
  45. 45. Economizing and Maximization <ul><ul><li>Maximize profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some economists recognize individuals may be motivated by other goals </li></ul>
  46. 46. Economizing and Maximization <ul><ul><li>People devote some of their time and energy to building up subsistence fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens of nonindustrial states also allocate scarce resources to a rent fund, resources that people render to an individual or agency that is superior politically or economically </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative Ends </li></ul>
  47. 47. Economizing and Maximization <ul><ul><ul><li>Live in state – organized societies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete incorporation into market economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce food without elaborate technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay rent to landlords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative Ends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants – small-scale agriculturalists who live in nonindustrial states and have rent fund obligations </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Substantivism: Focus on Real Economic Systems <ul><li>A cultural approach to economics - emphasizes the way economies are embedded in society and culture </li></ul><ul><li>study of how humans make a living from their social and natural environment. </li></ul><ul><li>an adaptation to its environment and material conditions </li></ul>
  49. 49. Karl Polanyi <ul><li>1886-1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Economic scholar </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced anthropologists such as Julian Steward </li></ul>
  50. 50. Substantivism: Focus on Real Exchange Systems <ul><ul><li>“ Organizational process of purchase and sale at money price” (Dalton 1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redistribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates when goods, services, or their equivalent, move from local level to a center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market Systems - Exchange based on a set centralized rate </li></ul>
  51. 51. Distribution, Exchange <ul><ul><li>Exchange between social equals, normally related by kinship, marriage, or close personal tie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant in more egalitarian societies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Householding - S elf-sufficient household economies </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocity- Forms of Gifted exchange </li></ul>
  52. 52. Distribution, Exchange <ul><ul><li>Generalized reciprocity – giving with no specific expectation of exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced reciprocity – exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reciprocity – dealing with people outside or on the fringes of their social systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three types of reciprocity </li></ul>
  53. 53. Economic Integration <ul><li>In North America, market principle governs many exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Also support redistribution, generalized reciprocity, and Householding systems </li></ul>Santa Clara Market
  54. 54. Potlatching <ul><ul><li>Some tribes still practice the potlatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potlatches traditionally gave away food, blankets, pieces of copper, or other items </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes of the north Pacific Coast of North America </li></ul>
  55. 55. Potlatching <ul><ul><li>Potlaching also served to prevent the development of socioeconomic stratification, a system of social classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If profit motive universal, how does one explain the potlach, in which wealth is given away? </li></ul>
  56. 56. Location of Potlaching Groups Tsimshian Potlatch; Photo: www.civilization.ca/aborig/cxs/ images/cxsm10b.gif

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