The scramble for africa

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The scramble for africa

  1. 1. 1845 Map of Africa • Until mid 19th century, very little known about Tropical Africa • Previous contact was limited mainly to slave trade through European forts & trade stations along the African coasts
  2. 2. Exploration & interest • David Livingstone – 1860’s Scottish Missionary – MIA for several years – H.M. Stanley • American newspaper reporter • Wrote articles about searching for Livingstone • Articles made World-Wide headlines • Famous greeting: “Dr. Livingstone I presume?”
  3. 3. King Leopold & the Congo • This exploration & increasing interest led to a treaty whereby Belgium gained the Congo • Soon after Belgium claimed a section of Africa, other nations of Europe scrambled to do the same
  4. 4. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 • The Berlin Conference set forth the rules for the division of Africa
  5. 5. • Fourteen European nations met, with no African representation, to divide the continent with little regard to ethnic or linguistic boundaries • After the division, only Liberia & Ethiopia were not imperialized by 1914 Video: “The Scramble for Africa”
  6. 6. European Conquest of Africa • With Europe’s advanced technology, primarily in weaponry & steamships, & the cultural disunity of Africa, the African nations were easily dominated  Better weapons (guns vs spears & clubs)  Able to control a conquered area more easily (Railways, Steamboats, & Telegraph cables)  The drug quinine (immunization for malaria)  Europeans played rival groups against each other
  7. 7. The Boer War • Despite the European agreement to peaceful division, conflicts still arose • In South Africa, for example, the Dutch, British, & Africans fought for land & resources Video: “The Second Boer War: When Does a War Stop Being a War?”
  8. 8. Key Emphasis on African Imperialism • In Africa, Europeans began exploring & then eventually took over land to get more raw materials that were needed as a result of industrialization What were the motives for the European “Scramble for Africa”?

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