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  1. 1. The Age of Imperialism Section 3Preview• Main Idea / Reading Focus• The New Imperialism• European Claims in Africa• African Resistance• Map: Imperialism in Africa• Quick Facts: The New Imperialism in AfricaThe Scramble for Africa
  2. 2. The Age of Imperialism Section 3Reading Focus• What factors led to the new imperialism?• How did European powers claim territory in Africa?• How did Africans resist European imperialism?Main IdeaIn the late 1800s and early 1900s, European powers claimedland in much of Africa.The Scramble for Africa
  3. 3. The Age of Imperialism Section 3The New ImperialismEuropean countries controlled only small part of Africain 1880; but by 1914 only Ethiopia, Liberia remainedindependent.• European powers rapidly divided Africa• Period known as “Scramble for Africa”– Most visible example of new imperialism– New imperialism not based on settlement of colonies– European powers worked to directly govern large areasoccupied by non-European peoples– Driven by economic interests, political competition, culturalmotives
  4. 4. The Age of Imperialism Section 3• To gather, export naturalresources, European entrepreneursdeveloped own mines, plantations,trade routes• Entrepreneurs sometimes called onhome countries to protect economicinterests from Europeancompetitors• In this way, drive for colonizationcame from ambitious individuals,not just European governmentsEntrepreneurial Colonization• Before early 1800s, severalEuropean nations profited fromslave trade in Africa• After some nations passed lawsabolishing slave trade, Europeanslooked to Africa as source for rawmaterials• Materials like coal, metals neededto manufacture goods duringIndustrial Revolution• Needs fueled Europeans’ desire forland with natural resources—available in AfricaRaw MaterialsEconomic Interests
  5. 5. The Age of Imperialism Section 3Nationalism a Factor• Rise of Germany, Italy as powers contributed to the new imperialism• Both nations jumped into race for colonization to assert status• Nationalism also contributed to rise of new imperialism• European leaders believed controlling colonies would gain them morerespect from other leadersPolitical Competition• Imperialism in Africa reflected struggles for power in Europe, such as long-term rivalry between France, Britain• France expanded control over West, Central Africa; Britain began to expandcolonial empire to block French
  6. 6. The Age of Imperialism Section 3In addition to practical matters of economics and politics, the newimperialism was motivated by cultural attitudes.• European imperialists felt superiorto non-European peoples• Some began to argue humanitydivided into distinct peoples, races• Claimed biological differencesexisted between races• Racist view—people of Europeandescent superior to people ofAfrican, Asian descentCultural Motives• As result, some Europeansbelieved rule in Africa justified• Teaching Africans goodgovernment• Some imperialists believedactions noble, their duty toeducate those considered inferior• Referred to their influence inAfrica as “the white man’sburden,” after poem by RudyardKiplingRule JustifiedCultural Motives
  7. 7. The Age of Imperialism Section 3Darwin• Defenders of imperialism often applied Charles Darwin’s theory of naturalselection to struggle between nations, races• Darwin argued species more fit for environment will survive, reproduceCecil Rhodes• Social Darwinism advocate Cecil Rhodes, “I contend that we are the finestrace in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better…”• Believed British-built railway would bring benefits of civilization to all AfricansSocial Darwinism• Social Darwinism notion stated certain nations, races more fit than others• Social Darwinists believed “fit” nations came to rule over “less fit” nations,often showed discrimination against citizens of ruled nationsJustification
  8. 8. The Age of Imperialism Section 3Find the Main IdeaWhat were some reasons that Europeanpowers scrambled to claim colonies inAfrica?Answer(s): for their own economic interests; tocompete with one another, and to teach theAfricans good government, European customs,and Christian values
  9. 9. The Age of Imperialism Section 3In the 1880s, driven by economic, political and cultural motives,Europeans began to compete for additional territory in Africa.• Africa, hugecontinent, ruggedterrain; travel,control difficult• 1800s, scientificadvances madetravel, control inAfrica easierScientific Advances• Discovery of drugquinine helpedEuropeans protectselves againstmalaria• Automatic machinegun created strongmilitary advantageProtection• Development oftelegraphs,railroads,steamships helpedEuropeansovercomeproblems ofcommunication,travelNew DevelopmentsEuropean Claims in Africa
  10. 10. The Age of Imperialism Section 3• 1869, Suez Canal influenced Britain’s interest in Egypt• Canal linked Mediterranean with Red Sea, shortened trip from Europe toIndian Ocean; no need to sail around southern tip of Africa• 1882, Egyptian government appeared unstable; British occupied Egypt toprotect British interests in Suez Canal; later established partial control asprotectorate to ensure British access to canal• European nations competedaggressively for other territories• 1884–1885, European leaders metin Berlin to divide African territory• Tried to prevent conflict betweenEuropean nationsDivision in Africa• Berlin Conference—for Europeannation to claim new African territory,it had to prove it could controlterritory• No attention paid to ethnicboundaries in dividing AfricaNo Regard for TraditionSuez Canal
  11. 11. The Age of Imperialism Section 3Dutch Settlers• British met opposition to landclaims in southern Africa• Dutch settlers, Boers, had lived inregion since 1600sHeightened Tensions, War• Britain tried to make Boer territorypart of British empire• 1899, war broke out• Boer forces outnumberedNo Political Rights• Gold discovered late 1800s• Boers refused to grant politicalrights to foreigners, including BritishUnion of South Africa• British committed numerousatrocities, defeated Boers• 1902, Boer territory became self-governing Union of South Africaunder British controlThe Boer War
  12. 12. The Age of Imperialism Section 3• 1890s, early 1900s, European,American demand for rubberincreased• To meet demand, Leopoldforced Congolese subjects toextract rubber from region’srubber trees; millions died fromoverwork, disease• Eventually international outcrycaused Belgian government totake control of Congo, 1908Demand for Rubber• Central Africa’s Congo FreeState not ruled by Europeancountry• King of Belgium, Leopold II,claimed territory for himself• Leopold created personalfortune exploiting Congo’snatural resources for himselfLeopoldBelgian Congo
  13. 13. The Age of Imperialism Section 3
  14. 14. The Age of Imperialism Section 3InferHow did the Berlin Conference contribute tothe Scramble for Africa?Answer(s): set rules for the division of Africaamong the European nations
  15. 15. The Age of Imperialism Section 3Even without modern weapons, other Africans still fiercely resistedEuropean powers.Africans did not passively accept European claims to rule over them.As European troops advanced on African territory, they met stiffresistance.• Zulu people resisted colonializationmore than 50 years• Zulu leader Shaka built strongkingdom by subduing severalneighboring peoples• 1879, British invaded Zulu territory,annexed kingdom as colonyThe ZuluAfrican Resistance• Only nation to retain independenceby matching European firepower• 1889, emperor Menelik IImodernized nation, army• 1895, Italian forces invaded overtreaty dispute• Menelik’s forces defeated ItaliansEthiopia
  16. 16. The Age of Imperialism Section 3French West Africa• West Africa, leader of Malinke peoples, Samory Touré, formed army to fightagainst French rule; fought for 15 years; proclaimed self king of Guinea• 1898, French defeated Touré, ended resistance to French rule in West AfricaRebellion Put Down• To combat Germans, spiritual leader encouraged followers to sprinkle magicwater over bodies to protect selves from German bullets; did not work• Rebellion quickly put down; Germans killed tens of thousands of AfricansGerman East Africa• Africans called on gods, ancestors for spiritual guidance in resistance• 1905, several African peoples united to rebel against Germans’ order to growcotton for export to GermanyFrench and Germans
  17. 17. The Age of Imperialism Section 3
  18. 18. The Age of Imperialism Section 3Draw ConclusionsHow did Ethiopia resist imperialism?Answer(s): by building a modern army, matchingEuropean firepower, and defeating the Italians atthe Battle of Adowa